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Design an Enterprise Architecture Strategy

Develop a strategy that fits the organization’s maturity and remains adaptable to unforeseen future changes.

  • The enterprise architecture (EA) team is constantly challenged to articulate the value of its function.
  • The CIO has asked the EA team to help articulate the business value the team brings.
  • Traceability from the business goals and vision to the EA contributions often does not exist.
  • Also, clients often struggle with complexity, priorities, and agile execution.

Our Advice

Critical Insight

  • EA can deliver many benefits to an organization. However, to increase the likelihood of success, the EA group needs to deliver value to the business and cannot be seen solely as IT.
  • Support from the organization is needed.
  • An EA strategy anchored in a value proposition will ensure that EA focuses on driving the most critical outcomes in support of the organization’s enterprise strategy.
  • As agility is not just for project execution, architects need to understand ways to deliver their guidance to influence project execution in real time, to enable the enterprise agility, and to enhance their responsiveness to changing conditions.

Impact and Result

  • Create an EA value proposition based on enterprise needs that clearly articulates the expected contributions of the EA function.
  • Establish the EA fundamentals (vision and mission statement, goals and objectives, and principles) needed to position the EA function to deliver the promised value proposition.
  • Identify the services that EA has to provide to the organization to deliver on the promised value proposition.

Design an Enterprise Architecture Strategy Research & Tools

1. Design an Enterprise Architecture Strategy Deck – A guide to help you define services that your EA function will provide to the organization.

Establish an effective EA function that will realize value for the organization with an EA strategy.

An EA strategy is the first step to creating an effective EA function; only by first demonstrating the value of EA to organizational stakeholders can the EA function operate to generate value.

2. EA Function Strategy Template – A communication tool to secure the approval of the EA strategy from organizational stakeholders.

Use this template to document the outputs of the EA strategy and to communicate the EA strategy for approval by stakeholders.

3. Stakeholder Power Map Template – A template to help visualize the importance of various stakeholders and their concerns.

Identify and prioritize the stakeholders that are important to your IT strategy development effort.

4. PESTLE Analysis Template – A template to help you complete and document a PESTLE analysis.

Use this template to analyze the effect of external factors on IT.

5. EA Value Proposition Template – A template to communicate the value EA can provide to the organization.

Use this template to create an EA value proposition that explicitly communicates to stakeholders how an EA function can contribute to addressing their needs.

6. EA Goals and Objectives Template – A template to identify the EA goals that support the identified promises of value from the EA value proposition.

Use this template to help set goals for your EA function based on the EA value proposition and identify objectives to measure the progression towards those EA goals.

7. EA Principles Template – A template to identify the universal EA principles relevant to your organization.

Use this template to define relevant universal EA principles and create new EA principles to guide and inform IT investment decisions.

8. EA Service Planning Tool – A template to identify the EA services your organization will provide to deliver on the EA value proposition.

Use this template to identify the EA services relevant to your organization and then define how those services will be accessed.


Member Testimonials

After each Info-Tech experience, we ask our members to quantify the real-time savings, monetary impact, and project improvements our research helped them achieve. See our top member experiences for this blueprint and what our clients have to say.

9.5/10


Overall Impact

$30,087


Average $ Saved

32


Average Days Saved

Client

Experience

Impact

$ Saved

Days Saved

Delta Dental Plan of New Jersey

Guided Implementation

9/10

$25,419

120

Fisheries and Oceans Canada

Guided Implementation

10/10

$10,000

20

Louisiana Health Service & Indemnity Company d/b/a Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Louisiana

Workshop

10/10

$61,999

50

Cascades, Centre des Technologies

Guided Implementation

9/10

$10,000

2

Napier City Council

Guided Implementation

8/10

$7,439

3

Washington Technology Solutions

Guided Implementation

9/10

N/A

N/A

Loto-Québec

Guided Implementation

10/10

$50,000

10

Choice Hotels International Services Corp.

Guided Implementation

10/10

$61,999

50

The Regional Municipality of Peel

Guided Implementation

10/10

$1,900

5

Afreximbank

Workshop

9/10

$75,000

60

Federated Co-operatives Limited

Guided Implementation

10/10

N/A

N/A

University of Kansas Hospital Authority

Workshop

10/10

$27,279

95

Cross Country Mortgage, Inc.

Guided Implementation

10/10

$21,699

9

PRIDE Industries

Guided Implementation

10/10

$12,399

20

The Government of the Northwest Territories

Guided Implementation

6/10

N/A

20

Shared Services Canada

Workshop

10/10

N/A

32

Oman LNG L.L.C.

Workshop

10/10

$61,999

10

Dar Al Handasah Consultants Shair & Partners Holdings Ltd.

Guided Implementation

10/10

$21,699

20

Delta Dental Plan of New Jersey

Guided Implementation

10/10

$2,479

10

Surgical Care Affiliates

Guided Implementation

9/10

$3,719

3

Grocery Outlet Inc

Guided Implementation

10/10

N/A

N/A

Vifor (International) AG

Guided Implementation

9/10

N/A

20

Delta Dental Plan of New Jersey

Guided Implementation

9/10

$30,999

50

Cascades, Centre des Technologies

Guided Implementation

10/10

$50,000

50

Ledcor Industries Inc.

Guided Implementation

8/10

N/A

5

Afreximbank

Guided Implementation

10/10

$23,500

10

Surgical Care Affiliates

Guided Implementation

10/10

$2,355

2

Fisheries and Oceans Canada

Guided Implementation

8/10

$10,000

18

Alcoa Corporation

Workshop

10/10

$92,999

20

Alberta Blue Cross

Guided Implementation

10/10

$2,000

20


Enterprise Architecture

EA teams need to understand the dynamic relationship between organizational complexity, operational maturity, and stakeholder value. This relationship forms the foundation for building value-driven roadmaps anchored in stakeholder needs..
This course makes up part of the Service Planning & Architecture Certificate.

Now Playing: Executive Brief

An active membership is required to access Info-Tech Academy
  • Course Modules: 4
  • Estimated Completion Time: 1 hour
  • Featured Analysts:
  • Gord Harrison, SVP Research & Advisory
  • Arif Mustafa, Research Director, Enterprise Architecture

Workshop: Design an Enterprise Architecture Strategy

Workshops offer an easy way to accelerate your project. If you are unable to do the project yourself, and a Guided Implementation isn't enough, we offer low-cost delivery of our project workshops. We take you through every phase of your project and ensure that you have a roadmap in place to complete your project successfully.

Module 1: Map the EA Contributions to Business Goals

The Purpose

Show an example of traceability.

Key Benefits Achieved

Members have a real-world example of traceability between business goals and EA contributions.

Activities

Outputs

1.1

Start from the business goals of the organization.

  • Business goals documented.
1.2

Document business and IT drivers.

  • Business and IT drivers documented.
1.3

Identify EA contributions that help achieve the business goals.

  • Identified EA contributions and traced them to business goals.

Module 2: Determine the Role of the Architect in the Agile Ceremonies of the Organization

The Purpose

Create an understanding about role of architect in Agile ceremonies.

Key Benefits Achieved

Understanding of the role of the EA architect in Agile ceremonies.

Activities

Outputs

2.1

Document the Agile ceremony used in the organization (based on SAFe or other Agile approaches).

  • Documented the Agile ceremonial used in the organization (based on SAFe or other Agile approaches).
2.2

Determine which ceremonies the system architect will participate in.

  • Determined which ceremonies the system architect will participate in.
2.3

Determine which ceremonies the solution architect will participate in.

  • Determined which ceremonies the solution architect will participate in.
2.4

Determine which ceremonies the enterprise architect will participate in.

  • Determined which ceremonies the enterprise architect will participate in.
2.5

Determine architect syncs, etc.

  • Determined architect syncs, etc.

Design an Enterprise Architecture Strategy

Develop a strategy that fits the organization’s maturity and remains adaptable to unforeseen future changes.

EXECUTIVE BRIEF

Build a right-size enterprise architecture strategy

Enterprise Architecture Strategy

Business & IT Strategy
  • Organizational Goals and Objectives
  • Business Drivers
  • Environment and Industry Trends
  • EA Capabilities and Services
  • Business Architecture
  • Data Architecture
  • Application Architecture
  • Integration Architecture
  • Innovation
  • Roles and Organizational Structure
  • Security Architecture
  • Technology Architecture
  • Integration Architecture
  • Insight and Knowledge
  • EA Operating Model
Unlock the Value of Architecture
  • Increased Business and IT Alignment
  • Robust, Flexible, Scalable, Interoperable, Extensible and Reliable Solutions
  • Timely/Agile Service Delivery and Operations
  • Cost-Effective Solutions
  • Appropriate Risk Management to Address the Risk Appetite
  • Increased Competitive Advantage
Current Environment
  • Business and IT Challenges
  • Opportunities
  • Enterprise Architecture Maturity

Enterprise Architecture – Thought Model

A thought model built around 'Enterprise Architecture', represented by a diagram on a cross-section of a ship which will be explained in the next slide. It begins with an arrow that says 'Organizational goals are the driving force and the ultimate goal' pointing to a bubble titled 'Organization' containing 'Analysis', 'Decisions', 'Actions'. An blue arrow on the right side with one '$' is labelled 'Iterations' and connects 'Organization' to 'Enterprise Architecture', 'Enterprise architecture creates new business value'. A green arrow on the left side with five '$' is labelled 'Goals' and connects back to 'Organization'. A the bottom, a bubble titled 'External forces, pressures, trends, data, etc.' has a blue arrow on the right side with one '$' connecting back to 'Enterprise Architecture'. Another blue arrow representing an output is labelled 'Outcomes' and originates from 'Enterprise Architecture'.

Enterprise Architecture Capabilities

A diagram on a cross-section of a ship representing 'Enterprise Architecture', including a row of process arrows beneath the ship pointing forward all labelled 'Agile iteration' and one airborne arrow above the stern pointing forward labelled 'Business Strategy'. Overlaid on the ship, starting at the back, are 'EA Strategy', 'EA Operating Model', 'Enterprise Principles, Methods, etc.', 'Foundational enterprise decisions: Business, Data/Apps, Technology, Integration, Security', 'Enterprise Reference Architecture', 'Goals, Value Chain, Capability, Business Processes', 'Enterprise Governance (e.g., Standard Mgmt.)', 'Domain Arch', 'Data & App Architecture', 'Security Architecture', 'Infrastructure: Cloud, Hybrid, etc.', at the very front is 'Implementation', and running along the bottom from back to front is 'Operations, Monitoring, and Continuous Improvement'.

Analyst Perspective

Enterprise architecture (EA) needs to be right-sized for the needs of the organization.

Photo of Milena Litoiu, Principal/Senior Director, Enterprise Architecture, Info-Tech Research Group

Enterprise architecture is NOT a one-size-fits-all endeavor. It needs to be right-sized to the needs of the organization.

Enterprise architects are boots on the ground and part of the solution; in addition, they need to have a good understanding of the corporate strategy, vision, and goals and have a vested interest on the optimization of the outcomes for the enterprise. They also need to anticipate the moves ahead, to be able to determine future trends and how they will impact the enterprise.

Milena Litoiu
Principal/Senior Director, Enterprise Architecture
Info-Tech Research Group

Analyst Perspective

EA provides business options based on a deep understanding of the organization.

“Enterprise architects need to think about and consider different areas of expertise when formulating potential business options. By understanding the context, the puzzle pieces can combine to create a positive business outcome that aligns with the organization’s strategies. Sometimes there will be missing pieces; leveraging what you know to create an outline of the pieces and collaborating with others can provide a general direction.”

Jean Bujold
Senior Workshop Delivery Director
Info-Tech Research Group

“The role of enterprise architecture is to eliminate misalignment between the business and IT and create value for the organization.”

Reddy Doddipalli
Senior Workshop Director, Research
Info-Tech Research Group

“Every transformation journey is an opportunity to learn: ‘Tell me and I forget. Teach me and I remember. Involve me and I learn.’ Benjamin Franklin.”

Graham Smith
Senior Lead Enterprise Architect and Independent Consultant

Develop an enterprise architecture strategy that:

  • Helps the organization make decisions that are hard to change in a complex environment.
  • Fits the current organization’s maturity and remains flexible and adaptable to unforeseen future changes.

Executive Summary

Your Challenge

We need to make decisions today for an unknown future. Decisions are influenced by:

  • Changes in the environment you operate in.
  • Complexity of both the business and IT landscapes.
  • IT’s difficulty in keeping up with business demands and remaining agile.
  • Program/project delivery pressure and long-term planning needs.
  • Other internal and external factors affecting your enterprise.

Common Obstacles

Decisions are often made:

  • Without a clear understanding of the business goals.
  • Without a holistic understanding; sometimes in conflict with one another.
  • That hinder the continuity of the organization.
  • That prevent value optimization at the enterprise level.

The more complex an organization, the more players involved, the more difficult it is to overcome these obstacles.

Info-Tech’s Approach

  • Is a holistic, top-down approach, from the business goals all the way to implementation.
  • Has EA act as the canary in the coal mine. EA will identify and mitigate risks in the organization.
  • Enables EA to provide an essential service rather than be an isolated kingdom or an ivory tower.
  • Acknowledges that EA is a balancing act among competing demands.
  • Makes decisions using guiding principles and guardrails, to create a flexible architecture that can evolve and expand, enabling enterprise agility.

Info-Tech Insight

There is no “right architecture” for organizations of all sizes, maturities, and cultural contexts. The value of enterprise architecture can only be measured against the business goals of a single organization. Enterprise architecture needs to be right-sized for your organization.

Info-Tech insight summary on arch. agility

Continuous innovation is of paramount importance in achieving and maintaining competitive advantage in the marketplace.

Business engagement

It is important to trace architectural decisions to business goals. As business goals evolve, architecture should evolve as well.

As new business input is provided during Agile cycles, architecture is continuously evolving.

EA fundamentals

EA fundamentals will shape how enterprise architects think and act, how they engage with the organization, what decisions they make, etc.

Start small and lean and evolve as needed.

Continuously align strategy with delivery and operations.

Architects should establish themselves as business partners as well as implementation/delivery leaders.

Enterprise services

Definitions of enterprise services should start from the business goals of the organization and the capabilities IT needs to perform for the organization to survive in the marketplace.

Continuous delivery and continuous innovation are the two facets of architecture.

Tactical insight

Your current maturity should be reflected as a baseline in the strategy.

Tactical insight

Take Agile/opportunistic steps toward your strategic North star.

Tactical insight

EA services differ based on goals, maturity, and the Agile appetite of the enterprise.

From the best industry experts

“The trick to getting value from enterprise architecture is to commit to the long haul.”

Jeanne W. Ross, MIT CISR
Co-author of Enterprise Architecture as Strategy: Creating a Foundation for Business Execution,
Harvard Business Press, 2006.

Typical EA maturity stages

A line chart that moves through multiple stages titled 'Enterprise Architecture Maturity Stages (MIT CISR)' The five stages of the chart, starting on the left, are 'Business Silos', 'Standardized Technology', 'Optimized Core', 'Business Componentization', and 'Digital Ecosystem'. 'The trick to getting value from enterprise architecture is to commit to the long haul.' The line begins at the bottom left of the chart and gradually creates a stretched S shape to the top right. Points along the line, respective to the aforementioned stages, are 'Locally Optimal Business Solutions', 'Technology Infrastructure Platform', 'Digitized Process Platform', 'Repository of Reusable Business Components', 'Components Connecting with Partners' Components', and at the end of the line, outside of the chart is 'Strategic Business Value from Technology'. Percentages along the bottom, respective to the aforementioned stages, read 20%, 36%, 45%, 7%, 2%. Percentages are rough approximations based on findings reported in Mocker, M., Ross, J.W., Beath, C.M., 'How Companies Use Digital Technologies to Enhance Customer Offerings--Summary of Survey Findings,' MIT CISR Working Paper No. 434, Feb. 2019. Copyright MIT, 2019.

Enterprise Architecture maturity

A maturity ladder visualization for 'Enterprise Architecture' with five color-coded levels. From the bottom up, the colors and designations are Red: 'Unstable', Orange: 'Firefighter', Yellow: 'Trusted Operator', Blue: 'Business Partner', and Green: 'Innovator'. Beside the visualization at the bottom it says 'EA is here', then an arrow in the direction of the top where it says 'EA needs to be here'.
  • Innovator – Transforms the Business
    Reliable Technology Innovation
  • Business Partner – Expands the Business
    Effective Use of Enterprise Architecture in all Business Projects, Enterprise Architecture Is Strategically Engaged
  • Trusted Operator – Optimizes the Business
    Enterprise Architecture Provides Business, Data, Application & Technology Architectures for All IT Projects
  • Firefighter – Supports the Business
    Reliable Architecture for Some Practices/Projects
  • Unstable – Struggles to Support
    Inability to Provide Reliable Architectures

Info-Tech Insight

There is no “absolute maturity” for organizations of all sizes, maturities, and cultural contexts. The maturity of enterprise architecture can only be measured against the business goals of the organization.

Info-Tech offers various levels of support to best suit your needs

DIY Toolkit

Guided Implementation

Workshop

Consulting

"Our team has already made this critical project a priority, and we have the time and capability, but some guidance along the way would be helpful." "Our team knows that we need to fix a process, but we need assistance to determine where to focus. Some check-ins along the way would help keep us on track." "We need to hit the ground running and get this project kicked off immediately. Our team has the ability to take this over once we get a framework and strategy in place." "Our team does not have the time or the knowledge to take this project on. We need assistance through the entirety of this project."

Diagnostics and consistent frameworks used throughout all four options

Workshop Overview

Contact your account representative for more information.
workshops@infotech.com1-888-670-8889

Session 1 Session 2 Session 3 Session 4 Session 5
Activities
Identify organizational needs and landscape

1.0 Interview stakeholders to identify business and technology needs

1.1 Review organization perspective, including business needs, challenges, and strategic directions

1.2 Conduct PESTLE analysis to identify business and technology trends

1.3 Conduct SWOT analysis to identify business and technology internal perspective

Create the EA value proposition

2.1 Identify and prioritize EA stakeholders

2.2 Create business and technology drivers from needs

2.3 Define the EA value proposition

2.4 Identify EA maturity and target

Define the EA fundamentals

3.1 Define the EA goals and objectives

3.2 Determine EA scope

3.3 Create a set of EA principles

3.4. Define the need of a methodology/agility

3.5 Create the EA vision and mission statement

Identify the EA framework and communicate the EA strategy

4.1 Define initial EA operating model and governance mechanism

4.2 Define the activities and services the EA function will provide, derived from business goals

4.3 Determine effectiveness measures

4.4 Create EA roadmap and next steps

4.5 Build communication plan for stakeholders

Next Steps and Wrap-Up (offsite)

5.1 Generate workshop report

5.2 Set up review time for workshop report and to discuss next steps

Outcomes
  1. Stakeholder insights
  2. Organizational needs, challenges, and direction summary
  3. PESTLE & SWOT analysis
  1. Stakeholder power map
  2. List of business and technology drivers with associated pains
  3. Set of EA contributions articulating the promises of value in the EA value proposition
  4. EA maturity assessment
  1. EA scope
  2. List of EA principles
  3. EA vision statement
  4. EA mission statement
  5. Statement about role of enterprise architect relative to agility
  1. EA capabilities mapped to business goals of the organization
  2. List of EA activities and services the EA function is committed to providing
  3. KPI definitions
  4. EA roadmap
  5. EA communication plan
  1. Completed workshop report on EA strategy with roadmap, recommendations, and outcomes from workshop

Guided Implementation

A Guided Implementation (GI) is a series of calls with an Info-Tech analyst to help implement our best practices in your organization.

A typical GI is 8 to 12 calls over the course of 4 to 6 months.

While variations depend on the maturity of the organization as well as its aspirations, these are some typical steps:

    Phase 1

  • Call #1: Explore the role of EA in your organization.
  • Phase 2

  • Call #2: Identify and prioritize stakeholders.
  • Call #3: Use a PESTLE analysis to identify business and technology needs.
  • Call #4: Prepare for stakeholder interviews.
  • Call #5: Discuss your EA value proposition.
  • Phase 3

  • Call #5: Understand the importance of EA fundamentals.
  • Call #6: Define the relevant EA services and their contributions to the organization.
  • Call #7: Measure EA effectiveness.
  • Phase 4

  • Call #8: Build your EA roadmap and communication plan.
  • Call #9: Discuss the EA role relative to agility.
  • Call #10: Summarize results and plan next steps.

Design an Enterprise Architecture Strategy

Phase 1

Explore the Role of Enterprise Architecture

Phase 1

  • 1.1 Explore a general EA strategy approach
  • 1.2 Introduce Agile EA architecture

Phase 2

  • 2.1 Define the business and technology drivers
  • 2.2 Define your value proposition

Phase 3

  • 3.1 Realize the importance of EA fundamentals
  • 3.2 Finalize the EA fundamentals

Phase 4

  • 4.1 Select relevant EA services
  • 4.2 Finalize the set of services and secure approval

This phase will walk you through the following activities:

Define the role of the group and different roles inside the enterprise architecture competency.

This phase involves the following participants:

  • CIO
  • IT Leaders
  • Business Leaders

Enterprise architecture optimizes the outcomes of the entire organization

Corporate Strategy –› Enterprise Architecture Strategy

Info-Tech Insight

Enterprise architecture needs to have input from the corporate strategy of the organization. Similarly, EA governance needs to be informed by corporate governance. If this is not the case, it is like planning and governing with your eyes closed.

Existing EA functions vary in the value they achieve due to their level of maturity

EA Functions
Operationalized
  • EA function is operationalized and operates as an effective core function.
  • Effectively aligns the business and IT through governance, communication, and engagement.
–––› Common EA value
Decreased cost Reduced risk
Emerging
  • Emerging but limited ad hoc EA function.
  • Limited by lack of alignment to the business and IT.
–x–› Cut through complexity Increased agility
(Source: Booz & Co., 2009)

Benefits of enterprise architecture

  1. Focuses on business outcomes (business centricity)
  2. Provides traceability of architectural decisions to/from business goals
  3. Provides ways to measure results
  4. Provides consistency across different lines of business: establishes a common vocabulary, reducing inconsistencies
  5. Reduces duplications, creating additional efficiencies at the enterprise level
  6. Presents an actionable migration to the strategy/vision, through short-term milestones/steps

Benefits of enterprise architecture continued

  1. Done right, increases agility
  2. Done right, reduces costs
  3. Done right, mitigates risks
  4. Done right, stimulates innovation
  5. Done right, helps achieve the stated business goals (e.g. customer satisfaction) and improves the enterprise agility.
  6. Done right, enhances competitive advantage of the enterprise

Qualities of a well-established and practical enterprise architecture

  1. Objective
  2. Impartial
  3. Credible
  4. Practical
  5. Measurable
  6. (Source: University of Toronto, 2021)

Role of the enterprise architecture

  • Primarily to set up guardrails for the enterprise, so Agile teams work independently in a safe, ready-to-integrate environment
  • Establish strategy
  • Establish priorities
  • Continuously innovate
  • Establish enterprise standards and enterprise guardrails to guide Solution/Domain/Portfolio Architectures
  • Align with and be informed by the organization’s direction

Members of the Architecture Board:

  • Chief (Business) Strategist
  • Lead Enterprise Architect
  • Business SME from each major domain
  • IT SME from each major domain
  • Operational & Infrastructure SME
  • Security & Risk Officer
  • Process Management
  • Other relevant stakeholders

For enterprise architecture to contribute, EA must address the organizational vision and goals

External Factors –› Layers of a Business Model
(Organization)
–› Architecture Supported Transformation
Industry Changes Business Strategy
Competition Value Streams
(Business Outcomes)
Regulatory Impacts Business Capability Maps
  • Security
Workforce Impacts Execution
  • Policies
  • Processes
  • People
  • Information
  • Applications
  • Technology

Info-Tech Insight

External forces can affect the organization as a whole; they need to be included as part of the holistic approach for enterprise architecture.

How does EA provide value?

Business and Technology Drivers – A set of statements created from business and technology needs. Gathered from information sources, it communicates improvements needed.

  • Vision, Aspirations, Long-Term Goals – Vision, aspirations, long term goals

    • EA Contributions – EA contributions that will alleviate obstructions. Removing the obstructions will allow EA to help satisfy business and technology needs.

      • Promise of Value – A statement that depicts a concrete benefit that the EA practice can provide for the organization in response to business and technology drivers.

Info-Tech Insight

Enterprise architecture needs to create and be part of a culture where decisions are made through collaboration while focusing on enterprise-wide efficiencies (e.g. reduced duplication, reusability, enterprise-wide cost minimization, overall security, comprehensive risk mitigation, and any other cross-cutting concerns) to optimize corporate business goals.

The EA function scope is influenced by the EA value proposition and previously developed EA fundamentals

Establish the EA function scope by using the EA value proposition and EA fundamentals that have already been developed. After defining the EA function scope, refer back to these statements to ensure it accurately reflects the EA value proposition and EA fundamentals.

EA value proposition

+

EA vision statement
EA mission statement
EA goals and objectives

—›
Influences

Organizational coverage

Architectural domains

Depth

Time horizon

—›
Defines
EA function scope

EA team characteristics

Create the optimal EA strategy by including personnel who understand a broad set of topics in the organization

The team assembled to create the EA strategy will be defined as the “EA strategy creation team” in this blueprint.

  • Someone who has been in the organization for a long time and has built strong relationships with key stakeholders. This individual can exert influence and become the EA strategy sponsor.
  • An individual who understands how the different technology components in the organization support its business operations.
  • Someone in the organization who can communicate IT concepts to business managers in a language the business understands.
  • An individual with a strategy background or perspective on the organization. This individual will understand where the organization is headed.
  • Any individuals who feel an acute pain as a result of poorly made investment decisions. They can be champions of EA strategy in their respective functions.

EA skills and competencies

Apart from business know-how, the EA team should have the following skills

  • Architectural thinking
  • Analytical
  • Trusted, credible
  • Can handle complexity
  • Can change perspectives
  • Can learn fast (business and technology)
  • Independent and steadfast
  • Not afraid to go against the stream
  • Able to understand problems of others with empathy
  • Able to estimate scaling on design decisions such as model patterns
  • Intrinsic capability to identify where relevant details are
  • Able to identify root causes quickly
  • Able to communicate complex issues clearly
  • Able to negotiate and come up with acceptable solutions
  • Can model well
  • Able to change perspectives (from business to implementation and operational perspectives).

Use of enterprise architecture methodologies

Balance EA methodologies with Agile approaches

Using an enterprise architecture methodology is a good starting point to achieving a common understanding of what that is. Often, organizations agree to "tailor" methodologies to their needs.

The use of lean/Agile approaches will increase efficiency beyond traditional methodologies.

Use of EA methodologies vs. Agile methods

When to use what?

  • Use an existing methodology to structure your thinking and establish a common vocabulary to communicate basic concepts, processes, and approaches.
  • Customize the methodology to your needs; make it as lean as possible.
  • Execute in an Agile way, but keep in mind the thoughtful checks recommended by your end-to-end methodology.
  • Clarify goals.
  • Have good measures and metrics in place.
  • Continuously monitor progress, fit for purpose, etc.
  • Highlight risks, roadblocks, etc.
  • Get support.
  • Communicate vision, goals, key decisions, etc.
  • Iterate.

Business strategy first, EA strategy second, and EA operating model third

Corporate Strategy
“Why does our enterprise exist in the market?”
EA Strategy
“What does EA need to be and do to support the enterprise’s ability to meet its goals? What is EA’s value proposition?”
Business & IT Operating Culture
“How does the organization’s culture and structure influence the EA operating model?”
EA Operating Model
How does EA need to operate on a daily basis to deliver the value proposition?”

High-level perspective

Creating an effective practice involves many moving parts.

A visual of the many moving parts in an effective practice; there are 6 smaller circles in a large circle, an input arrow labelled 'Environment', an output arrow labelled 'Results', and a thin arrow connecting 'Results' back to 'Environment'. Of the circles, 'Leadership' is in the center, connected to each of the others, while 'Culture', 'Strategy', 'Core Processes', 'Structure', and 'Systems' create a cycle. (Source: The Center for Organizational Design)

  • Environment. Influences that are external to the organization, such as customer perceptions, changing needs, and changes in technology, and the organization’s ability to adjust to them.
  • Strategy. The business strategy defines how the organization adds value and acts as the rudder to direct the organization. Organizational strategy defines the character of the organization, what it wants to be, its values, its vision, its mission, etc.
  • Core Process. The flow of work through the organization.
  • Structure. How people are organized around business processes. Includes reporting structures, boundaries, roles, and responsibilities. The structure should assist the organization with achieving its goals rather than hinder its performance.
  • Systems. Interrelated sets of tasks or activities that help organize and coordinate work.
  • Culture. The personality of the organization: its leadership style, attitudes, habits, and management practices. Culture measures how well philosophy is translated into practice.
  • Results. Measurement of how well the organization achieved its goals.
  • Leadership. Brings the organization together by providing vision and strategy; designing, monitoring, and nurturing the culture; and fostering agility.

The answer to the strategic planning entity dilemma is enterprise architecture

Enterprise architecture is a discipline that defines the structure and operation of an organization. The intent of enterprise architecture is to determine how an organization can most effectively achieve its current and future objectives.

Vision, goals, and aspirations as well internal and external pressures

Business current state

  • Existing capability
  • Existing capability
  • Existing capability
  • Existing capability
  • Existing capability
Enterprise Architecture

IT current state

  • IT asset management
  • Database services
  • Application development

Business target state

  • Existing capability
  • Existing capability
  • Existing capability
  • Existing capability
  • Existing capability
  • New capability

IT target state

  • IT asset management
  • Database services
  • Application development
  • Business analytics
Complex, overlapping, contradictory world of humans vs. logical binary world of IT
EA is a planning tool to help achieve the corporate business goals

EA spans across all the domains of architecture

Business architecture is the cornerstone that sets the foundation for all other architectural domains: security, data, application, and technology.

A flow-like diagram titled 'Enterprise Architecture' beginning with 'Digital Architecture' and 'Business Architecture', which feeds into 'Security Architecture', which feeds into both 'Data Architecture' and 'Application Architecture', which both feed into 'Technology Architecture: Infrastructure'.

“An enterprise architecture practice is both difficult and costly to set up. It is normally built around a process of peer review and involves the time and talent of the strategic technical leadership of an enterprise.” (The Open Group Architecture Framework, 2018)

Enterprise architecture deployment continuum

A diagram visualizing the Enterprise architecture deployment continuum with two continuums, 'Level of Embedding' and 'EA Value', assigning terms to EA deployments based on where they fall. On the left is an 'Ivory Tower' configuration: EA' is separated from the 'BU's but is still controlling them. Level of Embedding: 'Centralized', EA Value: 'Dictatorship'. In the center is a 'Balanced' configuration: 'EA' is spread across and connected to each 'BU'. Level of Embedding: 'Federated', EA Value: 'Democracy'. On the right is a 'Siloed' configuration: Each 'BU' has its own separate 'EA'. Level of Embedding: 'Decentralized', EA Value: 'Abdication of enterprise role'.

Info-Tech Insight

The primary question during the design of the EA operating model is how to integrate the EA function with the rest of the business.

If the EA practice functions on its own, you end up with ivory tower syndrome and a dictatorship.

If you totally embed the EA function within business units it will become siloed with no enterprise value.

Organizations need to balance consistency at the enterprise level with creativity from the grass roots.

Enterprise vs. Program/Portfolio/Domain

Enterprise vs. Program/Portfolio/Domain. Image depicts where Enterprise Scope overlaps Program/Portfolio Scope. Enterprise Scope includes Business Architecture. Program/Portfolio Scope includes Business Requirements, Business Process, and Solutions Architecture. Overlap between scope includes Technology Architecture, Data Architecture, and Applications Architecture.

Info-Tech Insight

Decisions at the enterprise level apply across multiple programs/portfolios/solutions and represent the guardrails set for all to play within.

Decide on the degree of centralization

Larger organizations with multiple domains/divisions or business units will need to decide which architecture functions will be centralized and which, if any, will be decentralized as they plan to scope their EA program. What are the core functions to be centralized for the EA to deliver the greatest benefits?

Typically, we see a need to have a centralized repository of reusable assets and standards across the organization, while other approaches/standards can operate locally.

Centralization

  • Allows for more strategic planning
  • Visibility into standards and assets across the organization promotes rationalization and cost savings
  • Ensures enterprise-wide assets are used
  • More strategic sourcing of vendors and resellers
  • Can centrally negotiate pricing for better deals
  • Easier to manage risk and prepare for audits
  • Greater coordination of resources
  • Derives benefits from enterprise decisions, e.g. integration…

Decentralization

  • May allow for more innovation
  • May be easier to demonstrate local compliance if the organization is geographically decentralized
  • May be easier to procure software if offices are in different countries
  • Deployment and installation of software on user devices may be easier

EA strategy

What is the role of enterprise architecture vis-à-vis business goals?

  • What needs to be done?
  • Who needs to be involved?
  • When?
  • Where?
  • Why?
  • How?

Top-down approach starting from the goals of the organization

    What the Business Sees...
  • Business Goals
    • Value Streams
        What the CxO Sees...
      • Capabilities
          What the App Managers See...
        • Processes
          • Applications
              What the Program Managers See...
            • Programs/Projects

Info-Tech Insight

Being able to answer the deceptively simple question “How am I doing?” requires traceability to and from the business goals to be achieved all the way to applications, to infrastructure, and ultimately, to the funded initiatives (portfolios, programs, projects, etc.).

Measure EA strategy effectiveness by tracking the benefits it provides to the corporate business goals

The success of the EA function spans across three main dimensions:

  1. The delivery of EA-enabled business outcomes that are most important to the enterprise.
  2. The alignment between the business and the technology from a planning perspective.
  3. Improvements in the corporate business goals due to EA contributions (standardization, rationalization, reuse, etc.).

Corporate Business Goals

  • Reduction in operating costs
  • Decreased regulatory compliance infractions
  • Increased revenue from existing channels
  • Increased revenue from new channels
  • Faster time to business value
  • Improved business agility
  • Reduction in enterprise risk exposure

EA Contributions

  • Alignment of IT investments to business strategy
  • Achievement of business results directly linked to IT involvement
  • Application and platform rationalization
  • Standards in place
  • Flexible architecture
  • Better integration
  • Higher organizational satisfaction with technology-enabled services and solutions

Measurements

  • Cost reductions based on application and platform rationalization
  • Time and cost reductions due to standardization
  • Time reduction for integration
  • Service reused
  • Stakeholder satisfaction with EA services
  • Increase in customer satisfaction
  • Rework minimized
  • Lower cost of integration
  • Risk reduction
  • Faster time to market
  • Better scalability, etc.

Info-Tech Insight

Organizations must create clear and smart KPIs (key performance indicators) across the board.

From corporate strategy to enterprise architecture

A model connecting 'Enterprise Architecture' with 'Corporate Strategy' through 'EA Services' and 'EA Strategy'.

Info-Tech Insight

In the absence of a corporate strategy, enterprise architecture is missing its North Star.

However, enterprise architects can partner with the business strategists to build the needed vision.

Traceability to and from business corporate business goals to EA contributions (sample)

A model connecting 'Enterprise Architecture' with 'Corporate Goals' through 'EA Contributions'.

Enterprise architecture journey

The enterprise architecture journey, from left to right: 'Business Goals' and 'EA Maturity Assessment', 'EA Strategy', 'Industry-Specific Capability Model' and 'Customized to the Organization's Needs', 'EA Operating Model' and 'EA Governance', 'Business Architecture' and 'EA Tooling', 'Data Architecture' and 'Application Architecture', 'Infrastructure Architecture'.

Agile architecture principles

Agile architecture principles:
  • Fast learning cycle
  • Explore alternatives
  • Create environment for decentralized ideation and innovation

According to the Scaled Agile Framework, three of the most applicable principles for the architectural professions refer to the following:

  1. "Fast learning cycle" refers to learning cycles that allow for quick reiterations as well as the opportunity to fail fast to learn fast.
  2. "Explore alternatives" refers to the exploration phase and also to the need to make tough decisions and balance competing demands.
  3. "Create environment for decentralized ideation and innovation" ensures that no one has a monopoly on innovation. Moreover, EA needs to invite ideas from various stakeholders (from the business to operations as well as implementers, etc.).

Architecture roles in lean enterprises

Typical architecture roles in modern/Agile lean enterprises

  • System Architect
  • Solution Architect
  • Enterprise Architect

Depth vs. strategy focus

Typical architect roles

A graph with different architect roles mapped onto it. Axes are 'Low Strategic Impact' to 'High Strategic Impact' and 'Breadth' to 'Depth'. 'Enterprise Architect' has the highest strategic impact and most breadth. 'Technical/System Architect' has the lowest strategic impact and most depth. 'Solution Architect' sits in the middle of both axes.

Architecture roles continued

The three architect roles from above and their impacts on the list of 'Common Domains' to the right. 'Enterprise Architect's impact is 'Across Value Streams', 'Solution Architect's impact is 'Across Systems', 'Technical/System Architect's impact is 'Single System'. Adapted from Scaled Agile.

Common Domains

Business Architecture

Information Architecture

Application Architecture

Technical Architecture

Integration Architecture

Security Architecture

Others

Info-Tech Insight

All architects are boots on the ground and play in the solutioning space. What differs is their decisions’ impact (the enterprise architect’s decisions affects all domains and solutions).

SAFe definitions of the Enterprise/Solution and System Architect roles can be found here.

The role of the Enterprise Architect is detailed here.

Collaboration models across the enterprise

A collaboration model with 'Enterprise Architecture' at the top consisting of a 'Chief Enterprise Architect', 'Enterprise Architects', and 'EA Concerns across solutions': 'Architect A', 'Architect B', and 'Architect C'. Each lettered Architect is connected to their respective 'Solution Architect (A-C)' which runs their respective 'Delivery Team (A-C)' with 'Other Team Members'.(Adapted from Disciplined Agile)

There are both formal and informal collaborations between enterprise architects and solution architects across the enterprise.

Info-Tech Insight

Enterprise architects should collaborate with solutions architects to create the best solutions at the enterprise level and to provide guidance across the board.

Architect roles in SAFe

According to Scale Agile Framework 5 for Lean Enterprises:

  • The system architect participates in the Essential SAFe
  • Solution architects and system architects participate in Large Solution
  • The enterprise architect participates in the Portfolio SAFe
  • Enterprise, solution, and system architects are all involved in Full SAFe

Please check the SAFe Scaled Agile site for detailed information on the approach.

Architect roles and their participation in Agile events (see likely events and a typical calendar)

Info-Tech Insight

A clear commitment for architects to achieve and support agility is needed. Architects should not be in an ivory tower; they should be hands on and engaged in all relevant Agile ceremonies, like the pre- and post-program increment (PI) planning, etc.

Architect syncs are also required to ensure the needed collaboration.

Architect participation in Agile ceremonies, according to SAFe:

Architecture runway (at scale)

Info-Tech Insight

Architecting for scale, modularity, and extensibility is key for the architecture to adapt to changing conditions and evolve.

Proactively address NFRs; architect for performance and security.

Continuously refine the solution intent.

For large solutions, longer foundational architectural runways are needed.

Having an intentional continuous improvement/continuous development (CI/CD) pipeline to continuously release, test, and monitor is key to evolving large and complex systems.

Parallel continuous exploration/integration/deployment

A cycle titled DevOps containing three smaller cycles labelled 'Continuous Explorations', 'Continuous Integration', and 'Continuous Deployment'.

Info-Tech Insight

Architects need to help make some fundamental decisions, e.g. help define the environment that best supports continuous innovation or exploration and continuous integration, deployment, and delivery.

Typical strategic enterprise architecture involvement

Enterprise Architect —DRIVES–› Enterprise Architecture Strategy

Enterprise Architecture Strategy
  • Application Strategy
  • Business Strategy
  • Data Strategy
  • Implementation Strategy
  • Infrastructure Strategy
  • Inter-domain Collaboration
  • Integration Strategy
  • Operations Strategy
  • Security Strategy
  • (Adapted from Scaled Agile)

The EA statement relative to agility

The enterprise architecture statement relative to agility specifies the architects’ responsibilities as well as the Agile protocols they will participate in. This statement will guide every architect’s participation in planning meetings, pre- and post-PI, various syncs, etc. Use simple and concise terminology; speak loudly and clearly.

Strong EA statement relative to agility has the following characteristics:

  • Describes what different architect roles do to achieve the vision of the organization
  • In an agile way
  • Compelling
  • Easy to grasp
  • Sharply focused
  • Specific
  • Concise

Sample EA statement relative to agility

  • Create strategies that provide guardrails for the organization, provide standards, reusable assets, accelerators, and other decisions at the enterprise level that support agility.
  • Participate in pre-PI and post-PI planning activities, architect syncs, etc.

A clear statement can include additional details surrounding the enterprise architect’s role relative to agility

Below is a sample of connecting keywords to form an enterprise architect role statement, relative to agility.

Optimize, transform, and innovate by defining and implementing the [Company]’s target enterprise architecture in an agile way.

Optimize – We collaborate with the business to analyze and optimize business capabilities and business processes to enable the agile and efficient attainment of [Company name] business objectives.

Transform – We support IT-enabled business transformation programs by building and maintaining a shared vision of the future-state enterprise and consistently communicating it to stakeholders.

Innovate – We identify and develop new and creative opportunities for IT to enable the business. We communicate the art of the possible to the business.

Defining and implementing – We engage with project teams early and guide solution design and selection to ensure alignment to the target-state enterprise architecture and provide guidance and accelerators.

Target enterprise structure in an agile way – We analyze business needs and priorities and assess the current state of the enterprise. We build and maintain the target enterprise architecture blueprints that define:

  • Business capabilities and processes (business architecture)
  • Data, application, and technology assets that enable business capabilities and processes (technology architecture)
  • Architecture principles
  • Standards and reusable assets
  • Continuous exploration, integration, and deployment

Traditional vs. Agile approaches

Traditional Enterprise Architecture Next-Generation Enterprise Architecture
Scope: Technology focused Business transformation (scope includes both business and technology)
Bottom up Top down
Inside out Outside In
Point to point; difficult to change Expandable, extensible, evolvable
Control-based: Governance intensive; often over-centralized Guidance-based: Collaboration and partnership-driven based on accepted guardrails
Big up-front planning Incremental/dynamic planning; frequent changes
Functional siloes and isolated projects, programs, and portfolios Enterprise-driven outcome optimization (across value streams)

Info-Tech Insight

The role of the architecture in Lean (Agile) approaches is to set up the needed guardrails and ensure a safe environment where everyone can be effective and creative.

Design an Enterprise Architecture Strategy

Phase 2

Create the EA Value Proposition

Phase 1

  • 1.1 Explore a general EA strategy approach
  • 1.2 Introduce Agile EA architecture

Phase 2

  • 2.1 Define the business and technology drivers
  • 2.2 Define your value proposition

Phase 3

  • 3.1 Realize the importance of EA fundamentals
  • 3.2 Finalize the EA fundamentals

Phase 4

  • 4.1 Select relevant EA services
  • 4.2 Finalize the set of services and secure approval

This phase will walk you through the following activities:

  • Identify and prioritize EA stakeholders.
  • Create business and technology drivers from stakeholder information.
  • Identify business pains and technology drivers.
  • Define EA contributions to alleviate the pains.
  • Create promises of value to fully articulate the value proposition.

This phase involves the following participants:

  • CIO
  • IT Leaders
  • Business Leaders

Step 2.1

Define the Business and Technology Drivers

Activities
  • 2.1.1 Use a stakeholder power map to identify and prioritize EA stakeholders
  • 2.1.2 Conduct a PESTLE analysis
  • 2.1.3 Review strategic planning documents
  • 2.1.4 Conduct EA stakeholder interviews

This step will walk you through the following activities:

  • Learn the five-step process to create an EA value proposition.
  • Uncover business and technology needs from stakeholders.

This step involves the following participants:

  • CIO
  • IT Leaders
  • Business Leaders

Outcomes of this step

An understanding of your organization’s EA needs.

Create the Value Proposition

Step 2.1 Step 2.2

Value proposition is an important step in the creation of the EA strategy

Creating an EA value proposition should be the first step to realizing a healthy EA function. The EA value proposition demonstrates to organizational stakeholders the importance of EA in helping to realize their needs.

Five steps towards the successful articulation of EA value proposition:

  1. Identify and prioritize stakeholders. The EA function must know to whom to communicate the value proposition.
  2. Construct business and technology drivers. Drivers are derived from the needs of the business and IT. Needs come from the analysis of external factors, strategic documents, and interviewing stakeholders. Helping stakeholders and the organization realize their needs demonstrates the value of EA.
  3. Discover pains that prevent driver realization. There are always challenges that obstruct drivers of the organization. Find out what they are to get closer to showing the value of EA.
  4. Brainstorm EA contributions. Pains that obstruct drivers have now been identified. To demonstrate EA’s value, think about how EA can help to alleviate those pains. Create statements that show how EA’s contribution will be able to overcome the pain to show the value of EA.
  5. Derive promises of value. Complete the articulation of value for the EA value proposition by stating how realizing the business or technology will provide in terms of value for the organization. Speak with the stakeholders to discover the value that can be achieved.

Info-Tech Insight

EA can deliver many benefits to an organization. To increase the likelihood of success, each EA group needs to commit to delivering value to their organization based on the current operating environment and the desired direction of the enterprise. An EA value proposition will articulate the group’s promises of value to the enterprise.

The foundation of an optimal EA value proposition is laid by defining the right stakeholders

All stakeholders need to know how the EA function can help them. Provide the stakeholders with an understanding of the EA strategy’s impact on the business by involving them.

A stakeholder map can be a powerful tool to help identify and prioritize stakeholders. A stakeholder map is a visual sketch of how various stakeholders interact with your organization, with each other, and with external audience segments.

An example stakeholder map with the 'Key players' quadrant highlighted, it includes 'CEO', 'CIO', and the modified position of 'CFO' after being engaged.

“Stakeholder management is critical to the success of every project in every organization I have ever worked with. By engaging the right people in the right way in your project, you can make a big difference to its success…and to your career.” (Rachel Thompson, MindTools)

2.1.1 Use a stakeholder power map to identify and prioritize EA stakeholders

2 hours

Input: Expertise from the EA strategy creation team

Output: An identified and prioritized set of stakeholders for the EA function to target

Materials: Note-taking materials, Whiteboard or flip chart, markers

Participants: EA strategy creation team

  1. A stakeholder power map helps to visualize the importance of various stakeholders and their concerns so you can prioritize your time according to the most powerful and most impacted stakeholders.
  2. Evaluate each stakeholder in terms of power, Involvement, impact, and support.
    • Power: How much influence does the stakeholder have? Enough to drive the project forward or into the ground?
    • Involvement: How interested is the stakeholder? How involved is the stakeholder in the project already?
    • Impact: To what degree will the stakeholder be impacted? Will this significantly change how they do their job?
    • Support: Is the stakeholder a supporter of the project? Neutral? A resistor?
  3. Map each stakeholder to an area on the Power Map Template.
  4. Ask yourself if the power map looks accurate. Is there someone who has no involvement in EA strategy development but should?
  5. Some stakeholders may have influence over others. For example, a COO who highly values the opinion of the Director of Operations would be influenced by that director. Draw an arrow from one stakeholder to another to signify this relationship.

Download the Stakeholder Power Map Template for more detailed instructions on completing this activity.

Each stakeholder will have a set of needs that will influence the final EA value proposition

All stakeholders will have a set of needs they would like to address. Take those needs and translate them into business and technology drivers. Drivers help clearly articulate to stakeholders, and the EA function, the stakeholder needs to be addressed.

Business Driver

Business drivers are internal or external business conditions, changing business capabilities, and changing market trends that impact the way EA operates and provides value to the enterprise.

Examples:

Ensure corporate compliance with legislation pertaining to data and security (e.g. regulated oil fields).

Enable the automation and digitization of internal processes and services to business stakeholders.

Technology Driver

Technology drivers are internal or external technology conditions or factors that are not within the control of the EA group that impact the way that the EA group operates and provides value to the enterprise.

Examples:

Establish standards and policies for enabling the organization to take advantage of cloud and mobile technologies.

Reduce the frequency of shadow IT by lowering the propensity to make business–technology decisions in isolation.

(Source: The Strategic CFO, 2013)

Gather information from stakeholders to begin the process of distilling business and technology drivers

Review information sources, then analyze them to derive business and technology drivers. Information sources are not targeted towards EA stakeholders. Analyze the information sources to create drivers that are relevant to EA stakeholders.

Information Sources Drivers (Examples)

PESTLE Analysis

Strategy Documents

Stakeholder Interviews

SWOT Analysis

—›

Analysis

—›

Help the organization align technology investments with corporate strategy

Ensure corporate compliance with legislation.

Increase the organization’s speed to market.

Business and Technology Needs

By examining information sources, the EA team will come across a set of business and technology needs. Through analysis, these needs can be synthesized into drivers.

The PESTLE analysis will help you uncover external factors impacting the organization

PESTLE examines six perspectives for external factors that may impact business and technology needs. Below are prompting questions to facilitate a PESTLE analysis working session.

Political
  • Will a change in government (at any level) affect your organization?
  • Do inter-government or trade relations affect you?
  • Are there shareholder needs or demands that must be considered?
  • How are your costs changing (moving off-shore, fluctuations in markets, etc.)?
  • Do currency fluctuations have an effect on your business?
  • Can you attract and pay for top-quality talent (e.g. desirable location, reasonable cost of living, changes to insurance requirements)?
Economic
Social
  • What are the demographics of your customers and/or employees?
  • What are the attitudes of your customers and/or staff (e.g. do they require social media, collaboration, transparency of costs)?
  • What is the general lifecycle of an employee (i.e. is there high turnover)?
  • Is there a market of qualified staff?
  • Is your business seasonal?
  • Do you require constant technology upgrades (e.g. faster network, new hardware)?
  • What is the appetite for innovation within your industry/business?
  • Are there demands for increasing data storage, quality, BI, etc.?
  • Are you looking to cloud technologies?
  • What is the stance on bring your own device?
  • Are you required to do a significant amount of development work in-house?
Technological
Legal
  • Are there changes to trade laws?
  • Are there changes to regulatory requirements (i.e. data storage policies, privacy policies)?
  • Are there union factors that must be considered?
  • Is there a push towards being environmentally friendly?
  • Does the weather have any effect on your business (hurricanes, flooding, etc.)?
Environmental

2.1.2 Conduct a PESTLE analysis

2 hours

Input: Expertise from EA strategy creation team

Output: Identified set of business and technology needs from PESTLE

Materials: Note-taking materials, Whiteboard or flip chart, markers

Participants: EA strategy creation team

  1. Begin conducting the PESTLE analysis by breaking the participants into groups. Divide the six different perspectives amongst the groups.
  2. Ask each group to begin to derive business and technology needs from their assigned perspectives. Use some of the areas noted below along with the questions on the previous slide to derive business and technology needs.
    • Political: Examine taxes, environmental regulations, and zoning restrictions.
    • Economic: Examine interest rates, inflation rate, exchange rates, the financial and stock markets, and the job market.
    • Social: Examine gender, race, age, income, disabilities, educational attainment, employment status, and religion.
    • Technological: Examine servers, computers, networks, software, database technologies, wireless capabilities, and availability of Software as a Service.
    • Legal: Examine trade laws, labor laws, environmental laws, and privacy laws.
    • Environmental: Examine green initiatives, ethical issues, weather patterns, and pollution.
  3. Ask each group to take into account the following questions when deriving business and technology needs:
    • Will business components require any changes to address the factor?
    • Will information technology components changes be needed to address any factor?
  4. Have each team record its findings. Have each team present its list and have remaining teams give feedback and additional suggestions. Record any changes in this step.

Download the PESTLE Analysis Template to assist with completing this activity.

Strategic planning documents can provide information regarding the direction of the organization

Some organizations (and business units) create an authoritative strategy document. These documents contain corporate aspirations and outline initiatives, reorganizations, and shifts in strategy. From these documents, a set of business and technology needs can be generated.

Overt Statements

  • Corporate objectives and initiatives are often explicitly stated in these documents. Look for statements that begin with phrases such as “Our corporate objectives are…”
  • Remember that different organizations use different terminology; if you cannot find the word goal or objective then look for “pillar,” “imperative,” “theme,” etc.

Turn these statements to business and technology needs by:

Asking the following:
  • Is there a need from a business perspective to address these objectives, initiatives, and shifts in strategy?
  • Is there a need from a technology perspective to address these objectives, initiatives, and shifts in strategy?

Covert Statements

  • Some corporate objectives and initiatives will be mentioned in passing and will require clarification. For example: “As we continue to penetrate new markets, we will be diversifying our manufacturing geography to simplify distribution.”

2.1.3 Review strategic planning documents

2 hours

Input: Strategic documents in the organization

Output: Identified set of business and technology needs from documents

Materials: Note-taking materials, Whiteboard or flip chart, markers

Participants: EA strategy creation team

Begin the identification process of business and technology needs from strategic documents with the following steps:

  1. Work with the EA strategy creation team to identify the strategic documents within the organization. Look for documents with any of the following content:
    • Corporate strategy document
    • Business unit strategy documents
    • Annual general reports
  2. Gather the strategic documents into one place and call a meeting with the EA strategy creation team to identify the business and technology needs in those documents.
  3. Pick one document and look through its contents. Look for future-looking words such as:
    • We will be…
    • We are planning to…
    • We will need…
  4. Consider those portions of the document with future-looking words and ask the following:
    • Will business components require any changes to address these objectives?
    • Will information technology components changes be needed to address these objectives?
  5. Record the business and technology needs identified in step 4. As well, record any questions you may have regarding the document contents for stakeholders to validate later.
  6. Move to the next document once complete. Complete steps 3-5 for the remaining strategy documents.

Stakeholder interviews will help you collect primary data and will shed light on stakeholder priorities and challenges

In this interview process, you will be asking EA stakeholders questions that uncover their business and technology needs. You will also be able to ask follow-up questions to get a better understanding of abstract or complex concepts from the strategy document review and PESTLE analysis.

EA Stakeholders:

  • Stakeholders may not think of their business and technology needs. But stakeholders will often explicitly state their objectives and initiatives.
  • Objectives often result in risks, opportunities, and annoyances:
    • Risks: Potential damage associated with pursuing an objective or initiative.
    • Opportunities: Potential gains that could be leveraged when capturing objectives and initiatives.
    • Annoyances: Roadblocks that could hinder the pursuit of objectives and initiatives.
  • Ask stakeholders questions on these areas to discern their business and technology needs.

Risks + Opportunities + Annoyances –› Business and Technology Needs

2.1.4 Conduct EA stakeholder interviews

4-8 hours

Input: Expertise from the EA stakeholders

Output: Business and technology needs for EA stakeholders

Materials: Note-taking materials, Whiteboard or flip chart, markers

Participants: EA strategy creation team, Identified EA stakeholders

  1. Schedule an interview with each of the stakeholders that were identified as key stakeholders in the Stakeholder Power Map.
  2. Meet with the key EA stakeholders and start business and technology needs gathering. Schedule each identified key stakeholder for an interview.
  3. When a stakeholder arrives for their interview, ask the following questions and record the answers to help uncover needs. Be sure to record which stakeholder answered the question. Further, record any future stakeholders that agree.
    • What are the current strengths of your organization?
    • What are the current weaknesses of your organization?
    • What is the number 1 risk you need to prevent?
    • What is the number 1 opportunity you want to capitalize on?
    • What is the number 1 annoying pet peeve you want to remove?
    • How would you prioritize these risks, opportunities, and annoyances?
  4. Recorded answer example: “We can’t see what the other departments are doing; when we spend a lot of money to invest in something, we later find out the capability is already within the company.”
  5. After completing each interview, verify with each stakeholder that you have captured their business and technology needs. Continue the interview process until all identified key stakeholders have been interviewed.
  6. Capture all inputs into a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) format.

Step 2.2

Define Your Value Proposition

Activities
  • 2.2.1 Create a set of business and technology drivers from business and technology needs
  • 2.2.2 Identify the pains associated with the business and technology drivers
  • 2.2.3 Identify the EA contributions that can address the pains
  • 2.2.4 Create promises of value to shape the EA value proposition

This step will walk you through the following activities:

  • Use business and technology drivers to determine EA’s role in your organization.

This step involves the following participants:

  • CIO
  • IT Leaders
  • Business Leaders

Outcomes of this step

A value proposition document that ties the value of the EA function to stakeholder needs.

Create the EA Value Proposition

Step 2.1 Step 2.2

Synthesize the collected data into business and technology drivers

Two triangles labelled 'Business needs' and 'Technology needs' point to a cloud labelled 'Analysis', which connects to the driver attributes on the right via a dotted line.

There are several key attributes that a driver should have.

Driver Key Attributes
  • A succinct statement.
  • Begins with “action words” to communicate a call to action (e.g. Support, Help, Enable).
  • Written in a language understood by all parties involved.
  • Communicates a need for improvement or prevention.

“The greatest impact of enterprise architecture is the strategic impact. Put the mission and the needs of the organization first.” (Matthew Kern, Clear Government Solutions)

2.2.1 Create a set of business and technology drivers from business and technology needs

3 hours

Input: Expertise from EA strategy creation team

Output: A set of business and technology drivers

Materials: Note-taking materials, Whiteboard or flip chart, markers

Participants: EA strategy creation team, EA stakeholders

Meet with the EA strategy creation team and follow the steps below to begin the process of synthesizing the business and technology needs into drivers.

  1. Lay out the documented business and technology needs your team gathered from PESTLE analysis, strategy document reviews, and stakeholder interviews.
  2. Assess the documented business and technology needs to see if there are common themes. Consolidate those similar business and technology needs by crafting one driver for them. For example:
    • PESTLE: Influx of competitors in the marketplace causing tighter margins.
    • Document review: Improve investment quality and their value to the organization.
    • Stakeholder interview: “We can’t see what the other departments are doing; when we spend a lot of money to invest in something, we later find out the capability is already within the company.”
    • Consolidated business driver example: Help the organization align investments with the corporate strategy and departmental priorities.
  3. As well, synthesize the business and technology needs that cannot be consolidated.
  4. Verify the completed list of drivers with stakeholders. This is to ensure you have fully captured their needs.

Download the EA Value Proposition Template to record your findings in this activity.

When addressing business and technology drivers, an organization can expect obstacles

A pain is an obstacle that business stakeholders will face when attempting to address business and technology drivers. Identify the pains associated with each driver so that EA’s contributions can be linked to resolving obstacles to address business needs.

Business and Technology Drivers

Pains

Created by assessing information sources. A sentence that states the nature of the pain and how the pain stops the organization from addressing the drivers.
Examples:
  • Business driver: Help the organization align investments with the corporate strategy and departmental priorities.
  • Technology driver: Improve the organization’s technology responsiveness and increase speed to market.
Examples:
  • Business driver pains: Lack of holistic view of business capabilities obstructs the organization from aligning investments with corporate strategy and departmental priorities.
  • Technology driver pains: Ineffective application development requiring delays decreases the speed to market.

2.2.2 Identify the pains associated with the business and technology drivers

2 hours

Input: Expertise from EA strategy creation team and EA stakeholders

Output: An associated pain that obstructs each identified driver

Materials: Note-taking materials, Whiteboard or flip chart, markers

Participants: EA strategy creation team, EA stakeholders

Call a meeting with the EA strategy creation team and any available stakeholders to identify the pains that obstruct addressing the business and technology drivers.

Take each driver and ask the questions below to the EA strategy creation team and to any EA stakeholders who are available. Record the answers to identify the pains when realizing the drivers.

  1. What are your challenges in performing the activity or process today?
  2. What other business activities/processes will be impacted/improved if we solve this?
  3. What compliance/regulatory/policy concerns do we need to consider in any solution?
  4. What are the steps in the process/activity?

Take the recorded answers and follow the steps below to create the pain statements:

  1. Answers to the questions above can be long, unfocused, or spoken in a casual manner. To turn the answer into pains, refine the recorded answers into a succinct sentence that captures its meaning.
    • Recorded answer example: “I feel like there needs to be a holistic view of the organization. If we had a tool to see all the capabilities across the business, then we can figure out what investments should be prioritized.”
    • Example of pain statement: Lack of holistic view of business capabilities obstructs the organization from aligning investments with corporate strategy and departmental priorities.
  2. When the list of pains has been written out, verify with the stakeholders that you have fully captured their pains.

Download the EA Value Proposition Template to record your findings in this activity.

The identified pains can be alleviated by a set of EA contributions

Set the foundations for the value proposition by brainstorming the EA contributions that can alleviate the pains.

Business and technology drivers produce:

Pains

—›
EA contributions produce:

Value by alleviating pains

Pains

Obstructions to addressing business and technology drivers. Stakeholders will face these pains.

Examples
  • Business driver pains: Lack of holistic view of business capabilities obstructs the organization from aligning investments with corporate strategy and departmental priorities.
EA contributions

Activities the EA function can perform to help alleviate the pains. Demonstrates the contributions the EA function can make to business value.

Examples:
  • Business driver EA contributions: Business capability mapping shows the business capabilities of the organization and the technology that supports those capabilities in the current and target state. This provides a view for the set of investments that are needed by the organization, which can then be prioritized.

Enterprise architecture functions can provide a diverse set of contributions to any organization – Sample

EA contribution category EA contribution details
Define business capabilities and processes As-is and target business capabilities and processes are documented and understood by both IT and the business.
Design information flows and services Information flows and services effectively support business capabilities and processes.
Analyze gaps and identify project opportunities Create informed project identification, scope definition, and project portfolio management.
Optimize technology assets Greater homogeneity and interoperability between tangible and intangible technology assets.
Create and maintain technology standards Decrease development, integration, and support efforts. Reduce complexity and improve interoperability.
Rationalize technology assets Tangible and intangible technology assets are rationalized to adequately and efficiently support information flows and services.

2.2.3 Identify the EA contributions that can address the pains

2 hours

Input: Expertise from EA strategy creation team

Output: EA contributions that addresses the pains that were identified

Materials: Note-taking materials, Whiteboard or flip chart, markers

Participants: EA strategy creation team

Gather with the EA strategy creation team, take each pain, then ask and record the answers to the questions below to identify the EA contributions that would solve the pains:

  1. What activities can the EA practice conduct to overcome the pain?
  2. What are the core EA models that can help accurately define the problem and assist in finding appropriate resolutions?
  3. What are the general EA benefits that can be associated with solving this pain?

Answers to the questions above will generate a list of activities EA can do to help alleviate the pains. Use the following steps to complete this activity:

  1. Create a stronger tie between the EA contributions and pains by linking the EA contribution statement to the pain.
    • Example of pain statement: Lack of holistic view of business capabilities obstructs the organization from aligning investments with corporate strategy and departmental priorities.
    • Example of EA contributions statement: Business capability mapping shows the business capabilities of the organization and the technology that supports those capabilities in the current and target state. This provides a view for the set of investments that are needed by the organization, which can then be prioritized.
  2. Verify with the stakeholders that they understand the EA contributions have been written out and how those contributions address the pains.

Download the EA Value Proposition Template to record your findings in this activity.

EA promises of value articulate EA’s commitment to the organization

  • Business Goals and Technology Drivers
    A set of statements created from business and technology needs. Gathered from information sources, it communicates improvements needed.

    • Value Streams, Aspirations, Long-Term Goals
      Value streams, aspirations, long-term goals

      • EA Contributions
        EA contributions that will alleviate the obstructions. Removing the obstructions will allow EA to help satisfy business and technology needs.

        • Promise of Value
          A statement that depicts a concrete benefit the EA practice can provide for the organization in response to business and technology drivers.
          Communicate the statements in a language that stakeholders understand to complete the articulation of EA’s value proposition.

2.2.4 Create promises of value to shape the EA value proposition

2 hours

Input: Expertise from EA strategy creation team and EA stakeholders

Output: Promises of value for each business and technology driver

Materials: Note-taking materials, Whiteboard or flip chart, markers

Participants: EA strategy creation team, EA stakeholders

Now that the EA contributions have been identified, identify the promises of value to articulate the value proposition.

Take each driver, then ask and record the answers to the questions below to identify the promises of value when realizing the drivers:

  1. What does amazing look like if we solve this perfectly?
  2. What other business activities/processes will be impacted/improved if we solve this?
  3. What measures of success/change should we use to prove value of the effort (KPIs/ROI)?

Take the recorded answers and follow the steps below to create the promises of value.

  1. Answers to the questions above can be long, unfocused, or spoken in a casual manner. To turn the answer into a promise of value, refine the recorded answer into a succinct sentence that captures its meaning.
    • Business driver example: Help the organization align investments with the corporate strategy and departmental priorities.
    • Recorded answer example: “If this would be solved perfectly, we would have a very easy time planning investments and investment planning hours can be spent doing other activities.”
    • Promises of value example: Increase the number of investments that have a direct tie to corporate strategy.
  2. When the promises of value have been written out, verify with the stakeholders that you have fully captured their ideas.

Download the EA Value Proposition Template to record your findings in this activity.

Design an Enterprise Architecture Strategy

Phase 3

Build the EA Fundamentals

Phase 1

  • 1.1 Explore a general EA strategy approach
  • 1.2 Introduce Agile EA architecture

Phase 2

  • 2.1 Define the business and technology drivers
  • 2.2 Define your value proposition

Phase 3

  • 3.1 Realize the importance of EA fundamentals
  • 3.2 Finalize the EA fundamentals

Phase 4

  • 4.1 Select relevant EA services
  • 4.2 Finalize the set of services and secure approval

This phase will walk you through the following activities:

  • Create an EA vision statement and an EA mission statement.
  • Create EA goals, define EA objectives, and link them to EA goals.
  • Define the EA function scope dimensions.
  • Create a set of EA principles for your organization.
  • Discuss current methodology.

This phase involves the following participants:

  • CIO
  • EA Team
  • IT Leaders
  • Business Leaders

Step 3.1

Realize the Importance of EA Fundamentals

Activities
  • 3.1.1 Create the EA vision statement
  • 3.1.2 Create the EA mission statement
  • 3.1.3 Create EA goals
  • 3.1.4 Define EA objectives and link them to EA goals
  • 3.1.5 Record the details of each EA objective

This step will walk you through the following activities:

  • Define and document the fundamentals that guide the EA function.

This step involves the following participants:

  • CIO
  • EA Team
  • IT Leaders
  • Business Leaders

Outcomes of this step

  • Vision and mission statements for the EA function.
  • A set of EA goals and a set of objectives to track progression toward those goals.
Build the EA Fundamentals
Step 3.1 Step 3.2

EA fundamentals guide the EA function

EA fundamentals include a vision statement, a mission statement, goals and objectives, and principles. They are a set of documented statements that guide the EA function. The fundamentals guide the EA function in terms of its strategy and decision making.

EA vision statement EA mission statement

EA fundamentals

EA goals and objectives EA principles

Info-Tech Insight

Treat the critical elements of the EA group the same way as you would a business. Create a directional foundation for EA and define the vision, mission, goals, principles, and scope necessary to deliver on the established value proposition.

The EA vision statement articulates the aspirations of the EA function

The enterprise architecture vision statement communicates a desired future state of the EA function. The statement is expressed in the present tense. It seeks to articulate the desired role of the EA function and how the EA function will be perceived.

Strong EA vision statements have the following characteristics:

  • Describe a desired future
  • Focus on ends, not means
  • Communicate promise
  • Concise, no unnecessary words
  • Compelling
  • Achievable
  • Inspirational
  • Memorable

Sample EA vision statements:

  • To be a trusted partner for both the business and IT, driving enterprise effectiveness, efficiency, and agility at [Company Name].
  • To be a trusted partner and advisor to both the business and IT, contributing to business-IT alignment and cost reduction at [Company Name].
  • To create distinctive value and accelerate [Company Name]’s transformation.

The EA mission statement articulates the purpose of the EA function

The enterprise architecture mission statement specifies the team’s purpose or “reason of being.” The mission should guide each day’s activities and decisions. The mission statements use simple and concise terminology, speak loudly and clearly, and generate enthusiasm for the organization.

Strong EA mission statements have the following characteristics:

  • Articulates EA function purpose and reason for existence
  • Describes what the EA function does to achieve its vision
  • Defines who the customers of the EA function are
  • Compelling
  • Easy to grasp
  • Sharply focused
  • Inspirational
  • Memorable
  • Concise

Sample EA mission statements:

  • Define target enterprise architecture for [Company Name], identify solution opportunities, inform IT investment management, and direct solution development, acquisition, and operation compliance.
  • Synergize with both the business and IT to define and help realize [Company Name]’s target enterprise architecture that enables the business strategy and optimizes IT assets, resources, and capabilities.

The EA vision and mission statements become relevant to EA stakeholders when linked to the promises of value

The process for constructing the enterprise architecture vision statement and enterprise architecture mission statement is articulated below.

Promises of value Derive keywords Construct draft statements Reference test criteria Finalize statements
Derive the a set of keywords from the promises of value to accurately capture their essence. Create the initial statement using the keywords. Check the initial statement against a set of test criteria to ensure their quality. Finalize the statement after referencing the initial statement against the test criteria.

Derive keywords from promises of value to begin the vision and mission statement creation process

Develop keywords by summarizing the promises of value that were derived from drivers into one word that will take on the essence of the promise. See examples below:

Business and technology drivers Promises of value Keywords
Help the organization align investments with the corporate strategy and departmental priorities. Increase the number of investments that have a direct tie to corporate strategy. Business
Support the rapid growth and development of the company through fiscal planning, project planning, and technology sustainability. Ensure budgets and projects are delivered on time with the assistance of technology. IT-Enabled
Reduce the duplication and work effort to build and deploy technology solutions across the entire organization. Aim to reduce the number of redundant applications in the organization to streamline processes and save costs. Catalyst
Improve the organization’s technology responsiveness and increase speed to market. Reduce the number of days required in the SDLC for all core business support projects. Value delivery

An inspirational vision statement is greater than the sum of the individual words

Ensure the sentence is cohesive and captures additional value outside of the keywords. The statement as a whole should be greater than the sum of the parts. Expand upon the meaning of the words, if necessary, to communicate the value. Below is an example of a finished vision statement.

Sample

Be a catalyst for IT-enabled business value delivery.

Catalyst – We will continuously interact with the business and IT to accelerate and improve results.

IT-enabled – We will ensure the optimal use of technology in enabling business capabilities to achieve business objectives.

Business – We will be perceived as a business-focused unit that understands [Company name]’s business priorities and required business capabilities.

Value delivery – EA’s value will be recognized by both business and IT stakeholders. We will track and market EA’s contribution to business value organization-wide.

A clear mission statement can include additional details surrounding the EA team’s desired and expected value

Likewise, below is a sample of connecting keywords together to form an EA mission statement:

Optimize, transform, and innovate by defining and implementing the [Company]’s target enterprise architecture.

Optimize – We collaborate with the business to analyze and optimize business capabilities and business processes to enable the agile and efficient attainment of [Company name] business objectives.

Transform – We support IT-enabled business transformation programs by building and maintaining a shared vision of the future-state enterprise and consistently communicating it to stakeholders.

Innovate – We identify and develop new and creative opportunities for IT to enable the business. We communicate the art of the possible to the business.

Defining and implementing – We engage with project teams early and guide solution design and selection to ensure alignment to the target-state enterprise architecture.

Target enterprise structure – We analyze business needs and priorities and assess the current state of the enterprise. We build and maintain the target enterprise architecture blueprints that define:

  • Business capabilities and processes (business architecture)
  • Data, application, and technology assets that enable business capabilities and processes (technology architecture)
  • Architecture principles and standards

3.1.1 Create the EA vision statement

1 hour

Input: Identified promises of value, Vision statement test criteria

Output: EA function vision statement

Materials: Note-taking materials, Whiteboard or flip chart, markers

Participants: EA strategy creation team

Begin the creation of the EA vision statement by following the steps below:

  1. Gather the EA strategy creation team and have the promises of value from the EA value proposition laid out.
  2. Select one promise of value and work with the team to identify one word that captures the essence of that promise of value.
  3. Continue to the next promise of value until all of the promises of value have a keyword identified.
  4. Have the identified set of keywords laid out and see if any of their meanings are similar and can be consolidated together. Consolidate similar meaning keywords.
  5. Create the initial draft of the EA vision statement by linking the keywords together.
  6. Check the initial draft of the vision statement against the test criteria below. Ask the team if the vision statement satisfies each of the test criteria.
    • Do you find this vision exciting?
    • Is the vision clear, compelling, and easy to grasp?
    • Does this vision somehow connect to the core purpose?
    • Will this vision be exciting to a broad base of people in the organization, not just those within the EA team?
  7. Make changes to the initial draft to satisfy the test criteria. Socialize the EA vision statement with EA stakeholders to make sure it captures their needs.

3.1.2 Create the EA mission statement

1 hour

Input: Identified promises of value, Mission statement test criteria

Output: EA function mission statement

Materials: Note-taking materials, Whiteboard or flip chart, markers

Participants: EA strategy creation team

Begin the creation of the EA mission statement by following the steps below:

  1. Gather the EA strategy creation team and have the promises of value from the EA value proposition laid out.
  2. Select one promise of value and work with the team to identify one word that captures the essence of that promise of value.
  3. Continue to the next promise of value until all of the promises of value have a keyword identified.
  4. Have the identified set of keywords laid out, and see if any of their meanings are similar and can be consolidated together. Consolidate similar meaning keywords.
  5. Create the initial draft of the EA mission statement by linking the keywords together.
  6. Check the initial draft of the mission statement against the following test criteria below. Ask the team if the mission statement satisfies each of the test criteria.
    • Do you find this purpose personally inspiring?
    • Does the purpose help you to decide what activities to not pursue, to eliminate from consideration? Is this purpose authentic – something true to what the organization is all about – not merely words on paper that sound nice?
    • Would this purpose be greeted with enthusiasm rather than cynicism by a broad base of people in the organization?
  7. Make changes to the initial draft to satisfy the test criteria. Socialize the EA mission statement with EA stakeholders to make sure it captures their needs.

EA goals demonstrate the achievement of success of the EA function

Enterprise architecture goals define specific desired outcomes of an EA function. EA goals are important because they establish the milestones the EA function can strive toward to deliver their promises of value.

Inform EA goals by examining:

Promises of value

—›
EA goals produce:

Targets and milestones

Promises of value

Produce EA strategic outcomes that can be classified into four categories. The four categories are:

  • Business performance
  • IT performance
  • Customer value
  • Risk management
EA goals

Support the strategic outcomes. EA goals can be strategic or operational:

  • EA strategic goals support the strategic outcomes.
  • EA operational goals help measure the architecture capability quality and supporting processes.

3.1.3 Create EA goals

2 hours

Input: Identified promises of value

Output: EA goals

Materials: Note-taking materials, Whiteboard or flip chart, markers

Participants: EA strategy creation team

Begin the creation of EA goals by following the steps below:

  1. Gather the EA strategy creation team and the identified promises of value from Phase 2, Create the EA Value Proposition.
  2. Open the EA Goals and Objectives Template and examine the list of default EA goals already within the template.
  3. Take the identified promises of value and discuss with the team if any of the EA goals in the template relate to the promises of value. Record the related EA goal and promise of value. See example below:
    • Promises of value example: Increase the number of investments that have a direct tie to corporate strategy.
    • Related EA goal example: Alignment of IT and business strategy.
  4. Repeat step 3 until all identified promises of value have been examined in relation to the EA goals in the template.
  5. If there are promises of value that are not related to an EA goal in the template, create EA goals to relate to those promises of value. Keep in mind that EA goals need to support the strategic outcomes produced by the promises of value. Record the EA goals in the template and document the related promises of value.

Download the EA Goals and Objectives Template to assist with completing this activity.

Starting with COBIT, select the appropriate objectives to track EA goals – Sample

Below are examples of EA goals and the objectives that track their performance:

IT performance-oriented goals Objectives
Alignment of IT and business strategy
  • Increase the percentage of enterprise strategic goals and requirements supported by IT strategic goals by X percent in the fiscal year.
  • Improve stakeholder satisfaction with planned function and services portfolio scope by X percent in the fiscal year.
  • Increase the percentage of IT value drivers mapped to business value drivers by X percent in the next fiscal year.
Increase in IT agility
  • Improve business executive satisfaction with IT’s responsiveness to new requirements by X percent in the fiscal year.
  • Increase the number of critical business processes supported by up-to-date infrastructure and applications in the next three years.
  • Lower the average time to turn strategic IT objectives into agreed-upon and approved initiatives.
Optimization of IT assets, resources, and capabilities
  • Increase the frequency of capability maturity and cost optimization assessments.
  • Improve the frequency of reporting for assessment result trends.
  • Raise the satisfaction levels of business and IT executives with IT-related costs and capabilities by X percent.

3.1.4 Define EA objectives and link them to EA goals

2 hours

Input: Defined EA goals

Output: EA objectives linked to EA goals

Materials: Note-taking materials, Whiteboard or flip chart, markers

Participants: EA strategy creation team

Begin the process of defining EA objectives and linking them to EA goals using the following steps:

  1. Gather the EA strategy creation team and open the EA Goals and Objectives Template.
  2. Have the goals laid out, and refer to the objectives already in the EA Goals and Objectives Template. Examine if any of them will fit the goals your team has created.
  3. If some of the goals your team has created do not fit with the objectives in the template, begin the process of creating new objectives. Remember, EA objectives are SMART metrics that help track the progress toward the EA goals.
  4. Create an EA objective and check if it is SMART by asking some of the questions below:
    • Specific: Is the objective specific to the goal? Is the objective clear to anyone who has basic knowledge of the goal?
    • Measurable: Is it possible to figure out how far the team would be away from completing the objective?
    • Agreed Upon: Does everyone involved agree the objective is the correct way to measure progress?
    • Realistic: Can the objective be met within the availability of resources, knowledge, and time?
    • Time Based: Is there a time-bound component to the goal?
  5. Continue to create new objectives until each goal has an objective linked to it.

Download the EA Goals and Objectives Template to assist with completing this activity.

For each of the objectives, determine how they will be collected, reported, and implemented

Add details to the enterprise architecture objectives previously defined to increase their clarity to stakeholders.

EA objective detail category Description
Unit of measure
  • The unit in which the objective will be presented.
Calculation formula
  • The formula by which the objective will be calculated.
Objective baseline, status, and target
  • Baseline: The state of the objective at the start of measurement.
  • Status: The current state of the measurement.
  • Target: The target state the measurement should reach.
Data collection
  • Responsible: The individual responsible for collecting the data.
  • Source: Where the data originates.
  • Frequency: How often the data will be collected to calculate the objective.
Reporting
  • Target Audience: The people the objective will be presented to.
  • Method: The method used to present the data collected on the objective (e.g. report, presentation).
  • Frequency: How often the data will be presented to the target audience.

3.1.5 Record the details of each EA objective

2 hours

Input: Defined list of EA objectives

Output: Increased detail into each defined EA objective

Materials: Note-taking materials, Whiteboard or flip chart, markers

Participants: EA strategy creation team

Record the details of each EA objective. Use the following steps below to assist with recording the details:

  1. Gather the EA strategy creation team, and open the EA Goals and Objectives Template.
  2. Select one objective that has been identified and discuss the formula for calculating the objective and in what units the objective will be recorded. Record the information in the “Calculation formula” and “Unit of measure” columns in the template once they have been agreed upon.
  3. Using the same objective, move to the “Data Collection” portion of the template. Discuss and record the following: the source of the data that generates the objective, the frequency of reporting on the objective, and the person responsible for reporting the objective.
  4. Move to the “Reporting” portion of the template. Discuss and record the target audience for the objective and the reporting frequency and method to those audiences.
  5. Examine the “Objective baseline,” “Objective status,” and “Objective target” columns. Record any measurement you may currently have in the “Objective baseline” column. Record what you would like the objective measurement to be in the “Objective target” column. Note: Keep track of the progression towards the target in the “Objective status” column in the future.
  6. Select the next objective and complete steps 2–5 for that measure. Continue this process until you have recorded details for all objectives.

Download the EA Goals and Objectives Template to assist with completing this activity.

Step 3.2

Finalize the EA Fundamentals

Activities
  • 3.2.1 Define the organizational coverage dimension of the EA function scope
  • 3.2.2 Define the architectural domains and depth dimension
  • 3.2.3 Define the time horizon dimension
  • 3.2.4 Create a set of EA principles for your organization
  • 3.2.5 Add the rationale and implications to the principles
  • 3.2.6 Operationalize the EA principles
  • 3.2.7 Discuss the need for classical methodology and/or a combination including Agile practices

This step will walk you through the following activities:

  • Define the EA function scope dimensions.
  • Create a set of EA principles.
  • Discuss the organization’s current methodology, if any, and whether it works for the business.

This step involves the following participants:

  • CIO
  • EA Team
  • IT Leaders
  • Business Leaders

Outcomes of this step

  • Defined scope of the EA function.
  • A set of EA principles for your organization.
  • A decision on traditional vs. Agile methodology or a blend of both.

Build the EA Fundamentals

Step 3.1 Step 3.2

A clear EA function scope defines the EA sandbox

The EA function scope constrains the promises of value the EA function will deliver on by taking into account factors across four dimensions. The EA function scope ensures that the EA function is not stretched beyond its current/planned means and capabilities when delivering the promised value. The four dimensions are illustrated below:

Organizational coverage
Determine the focus of the enterprise architecture effort in terms of specific business units, functions, departments, capabilities, or geographical areas.
Depth
Determine the appropriate level of detail to be captured, based on the intended use of the enterprise architecture and the contingent decisions to be made.

EA Scope

Architectural Domains
Determine the EA domains (business, data, application, infrastructure, security) that are appropriate to address stakeholder concerns and architecture requirements.
Time horizon
Determine the target-state architecture’s objective time period.

The EA function scope is influenced by the EA value proposition and previously developed EA fundamentals

Establish the EA function scope by using the EA value proposition and EA fundamentals that have been developed. After defining the EA function scope, refer back to these statements to ensure the EA function scope accurately reflects the EA value proposition and EA fundamentals.

EA value proposition

+

EA vision statement
EA mission statement
EA goals and objectives

—›
Influences

Organizational coverage

Architectural domains

Depth

Time horizon

—›
Defines
EA function scope

EA scope – Organizational Coverage

The organizational coverage dimension of EA scope determines the focus of enterprise architecture effort in the organization. Coverage can be determined by specific business units, functions, departments, capabilities, or geographic areas. Info-Tech has typically seen two types of coverage based on the size of the organization.

Small and medium-size enterprise

Indicators: Full-time employees dedicated to manage its data and IT infrastructure. Individuals are IT generalists and may have multiple roles.

Recommended coverage: Typically, for small and medium-size businesses, the organizational coverage of architecture work is the entire enterprise. (Source: The Open Group, 2018)

Large enterprise

Indicators: Dedicated full-time IT staff with expertise to manage specific applications or parts of the IT infrastructure.

Recommended coverage: For large enterprises, it is often necessary to develop a number of architectures focused on specific business segments and/or geographies. In this federated model, an overarching enterprise architecture should be established to ensure interoperability and conformance to overarching EA principles. (Source: DCIG, 2011)

EA objectives track the progression towards the target set by EA goals

Enterprise architecture objectives are specific metrics that help measure and monitor progress towards achieving an EA goal. Objectives are SMART.

EA goals —› EA objectives
  • EA strategic goals:
    • Business performance
    • IT performance
    • Customer value
    • Risk management
  • EA operational goals
  • Specific
  • Measurable
  • Agreed upon
  • Realistic
  • Time bound
(Source: Project Smart, 2014)

Download the EA Goals and Objectives Template to see examples between the relationship of EA goals to objectives.

Measure the EA strategy effectiveness by tracking the benefits it provides to the corporate business goals

The success of the EA function is influenced by the following:

  • The delivery of EA-enabled business outcomes that are most important to the enterprise.
  • The alignment between the business and IT from a planning perspective.
  • Improvements in the corporate business goals due to EA contributions (standardization, rationalization, reuse, etc.).
Corporate Business Goals Measurements
  • Reduction in operating costs
  • Decrease in regulatory compliance infractions
  • Increased revenue from existing channels
  • Increased revenue from new channels
  • Faster time to business value
  • Improved business agility
  • Reduction in enterprise risk exposure
  • Cost reductions based on application and platform rationalization
  • Standard-based solutions
  • Time reduction for integration
  • Service reused
  • Stakeholder satisfaction with EA services
  • Increase customer satisfaction
  • Rework minimized
  • Lower cost of integration
  • Risk reduction
  • Faster time to market
  • Better scalability, etc.

3.2.1 Define the organizational coverage dimension of the EA function scope

2 hours

Input: EA value proposition, Previously defined EA fundamentals

Output: Organizational coverage dimension of EA scope defined

Materials: Note-taking materials, Whiteboard or flip chart, markers

Participants: EA strategy creation team

Define the organizational coverage of the EA function scope using the following steps below:

  1. Gather the EA strategy creation team. As well, gather the EA value proposition, the EA vision and mission statements, and the EA goals and objectives your team has already created.
  2. Ask the team to read each of the documents gathered in the previous step. This ensures the concepts are fresh in the team members’ minds when defining the EA function scope organizational coverage.
  3. Consider how much of the organization the EA function would need to cover. Refer to the gathered materials to assist with your decision. For example:
    • EA mission statement: Optimize, transform, and innovate by defining and implementing the [Company]’s target enterprise architecture.
    • Implications on organizational coverage: If the purpose of the EA function is to help optimize, transform, and innovate with target-state architecture mapping, then the scope should cover the entire organization. Only by mapping the entire organization’s architecture can the EA function assist with optimizing, transforming, and innovating.
  4. Work with the EA strategy creation team to examine all the gathered materials and document the implications on organization coverage as shown in step 3.
  5. Discuss with the team and select the organizational coverage level that best fits the documented implications for all the gathered materials. Refer back to the gathered materials and make any changes necessary to ensure they support the selected organizational coverage.

EA scope – Architectural Domains

A complete enterprise architecture should address all five architectural domains. The five architectural domains are business, data, application, infrastructure, and security.

Enterprise Architecture
—› Data Architecture
Business Architecture —› Infrastructure Architecture
Security Architecture
—› Application Architecture

“The realities of resource and time constraints often mean there is not enough time, funding, or resources to build a top-down, all-inclusive architecture encompassing all four architecture domains. Build architecture domains with a specific purpose in mind.” (The Open Group, 2018)

Each architectural domain creates a different view of the organization

Below are the definitions of different domains of enterprise architecture (Info-Tech perspective; others can be identified as well, e.g. Integration Architecture).

Business Architecture

Business architecture is a means of demonstrating the business value of subsequent architecture work to key stakeholders and the return on investment to those stakeholders from supporting and participating in the subsequent work. Business architecture defines the business strategy, governance, organization, and key business processes.

Data Architecture

Describes the structure of an organization’s logical and physical data assets and data management resources.

Application Architecture

Provides a blueprint for the individual applications to be deployed, their interactions, and their relationships to the core business processes of the organization.

Infrastructure Architecture

Represents the sum of hardware, software, and telecommunications-related IT capability associated with a particular enterprise. It is concerned with the synergistic operations and management of the devices in the organization.

Security Architecture

Provides an unified security design that addresses the necessities and potential risks involved in a certain scenario or environment. It also specifies when and where to apply security controls.
(Sources: The Open Group, 2018; IT Architecture Journal, 2014; Technopedia, 2016)

EA scope – Depth

EA scope depth defines the architectural detail for each EA domain that the organization has selected to pursue. The level of depth is broken down into four levels. The level of depth the organization decides to pursue should be consistent across the domains.

Contextual
  • Helps define the organization scope, and examines external and internal requirements and their effect on the organization. For example, enterprise governance.
Conceptual
  • High-level representations of the organization or what the organization wants to be. For example, business strategy, IT strategy.
Logical
  • Models that define how to implement the representation in the conceptual stage. For example, identifying the business gaps from the current state to the target state defined by the business strategy.
Physical
  • The technology and physical tools used to implement the representation created in the logical stage. For example, business processes that need to be created to bridge the gaps identified and reach the target stage.
(Source: Zachman International, 2011) Business Architecture Data Architecture Application Architecture Infrastructure Architecture Security Architecture

Each architectural depth level contains a set of key artifacts

The graphic below depicts examples of the key artifacts that each domain of architecture would produce at each depth level.

Contextual Enterprise Governance
Conceptual Business strategy Business objects Use-case models Technology landscaping Security policy
Logical Business capabilities Data attribution Application integration Network/ hardware topology Security standards
Physical Business process Database design Application design Configuration management Security configuration
Business Architecture Data Architecture Application Architecture Infrastructure Architecture Security Architecture

3.2.2 Define the architectural domains and depth dimension of the EA function scope

2 hours

Input: EA value proposition, Previously defined EA fundamentals

Output: Architectural domain and depth dimensions of EA scope defined

Materials: Note-taking materials, Whiteboard or flip chart, markers

Participants: EA strategy creation team

Define the EA function scope for your organization using the following steps below:

  1. Gather the EA strategy creation team. As well, gather the EA value proposition, the EA vision and mission statements, and the EA goals and objectives that your team has already created.
  2. Ask the team to read each of the documents gathered in the previous step. This ensures the concepts are fresh in the team members’ minds when defining the architectural domains and depth of the EA function scope.
  3. Consider the architectural domains and the depth those domains need to reach. Refer to the gathered materials to assist with your decision. For example:
    • Promise of value: Increase the number of IT investments with a direct tie to business strategy.
    • Implications on architectural domains: The EA function will need business architecture. Business architecture generates business capability mapping, which will anticipate what IT investments are needed for the future.
    • Implications on depth: Depth for business architecture needs to reach a logical level to encompass business capabilities.
  4. Work with the EA strategy creation team to examine all the gathered materials and document the implications on architectural domains and depth as shown in step 3.
  5. Discuss with the team and select the architectural domains and the depth for each domain that best fits the documented implication. Refer back to the gathered materials and make any changes necessary to ensure they support the selected architectural domains and depth.

EA scope – Time Horizon

The EA scope time horizon dictates how long to plan for the architecture.

It is important that the EA team’s work has an appropriate planning horizon while avoiding two extremes:

  1. A planning horizon that is too short focuses on immediate operational goals and strategic quick wins, missing the “big picture,” and fails to support the achievement of strategic long-term enterprise goals.
  2. A planning horizon that is too long is at a higher risk of becoming irrelevant.

Target the same strategic planning horizon as your business. Additionally, consider the following recommendations:

Planning Horizon: 1 year 2-3 years 5 years
Recommended under the following conditions:
  • Corporate strategy is not stable and frequently changes direction (typical for small and some mid-sized companies).
  • There will be a major update of the corporate strategy in one year.
  • The company will be acquired by or merged with another company in one year.
  • The business' strategic plan spans the next two to three years, and corporate strategy is moderately stable within this time frame (typical for mid-sized and some large companies).
  • The business' strategic plan spans the next five years and corporate strategy is very stable (typical for large companies).

3.2.3 Define the time horizon dimension of the EA function scope

2 hours

Input: EA value proposition, Previously defined EA fundamentals

Output: Time horizon dimension of EA scope defined

Materials: Note-taking materials, Whiteboard or flip chart, markers

Participants: EA strategy creation team

Define the EA function scope for your organization using the following steps below:

  1. Gather the EA strategy creation team. As well, gather the EA value proposition, the EA vision and mission statements, and the EA goals and objectives your team has already created.
  2. Ask the team to read each of the documents gathered in the previous step. This ensures the concepts are fresh in the team members’ minds when crafting the EA function scope.
  3. Consider the time horizons of the EA function scope. Refer to the gathered materials to assist with your decision. For example:
    • EA Objective: Increase the percentage of enterprise strategic goals and requirements supported by IT strategic goals by 30% in the next 3 years.
    • Implications on time horizon: Because it will take 3 years to measure the success of these EA objectives, the time horizon may need to be 3 years.
  4. Work with the EA strategy creation team to examine all the gathered materials and document the implications on time horizon as shown in step 3.
  5. Discuss with the team and select the time horizon that best fits the documented implication. Refer back to the gathered materials and make any changes necessary to ensure they support the selected architectural time horizon.

EA principles capture the EA value proposition essence and provide guidance for the decisions that impact architecture

EA principles are shared, long-lasting beliefs that guide the use of IT in constructing, transforming, and operating the enterprise by informing and restricting target-state enterprise architecture design, IT investment portfolio management, solution development, and procurement decisions.

EA value proposition Influences
—›
EA Principles Guide and inform
—›
Decisions on the Use of IT Direct and control
‹—
Specific Domain Policies
‹———————

What decisions should be made?
————— ————— —————
How should decisions be made?
————— ————— —————————›
Who has the accountability and authority to make decisions?

EA principles must be carefully constructed to make sure they are adhered to and relevant

Info-Tech has identified a set of characteristics that EA principles should possess. Having these characteristics ensures the EA principles are relevant and followed in the organization.

Approach focused EA principles are focused on the approach, i.e. how the enterprise is built, transformed, and operated, as apposed to what needs to be built, which is defined by both functional and non-functional requirements.
Business relevant Create EA principles specific to the organization. Tie EA principles to the organization’s priorities and strategic aspirations.
Long lasting Build EA principles that will withstand the test of time.
Prescriptive Inform and direct decision making with EA principles that are actionable. Avoid truisms, general statements, and observations.
Verifiable If compliance can’t be verified, the principle is less likely to be followed.
Easily digestible EA principles must be clearly understood by everyone in IT and by business stakeholders. EA principles aren’t a secret manuscript of the EA team. EA principles should be succinct; wordy principles are hard to understand and remember.
Followed Successful EA principles represent a collection of beliefs shared among enterprise stakeholders. EA principles must be continuously “preached” to all stakeholders to achieve and maintain buy-in.

In organizations where formal policy enforcement works well, EA principles should be enforced through appropriate governance processes.

Review ten universal EA principles to determine if your organization wishes to adopt them

1. Enterprise value focus We aim to provide maximum long-term benefits to the enterprise as a whole while optimizing total costs of ownership and risks.
2. Fit for purpose We maintain capability levels and create solutions that are fit for purpose without over-engineering them.
3. Simplicity We choose the simplest solutions and aim to reduce operational complexity of the enterprise.
4. Reuse › buy › build We maximize reuse of existing assets. If we can’t reuse, we procure externally. As a last resort, we build custom solutions.
5. Managed data We handle data creation, modification, and use enterprise-wide in compliance with our data governance policy.
6. Controlled technical diversity We control the variety of technology platforms we use.
7. Managed security We manage security enterprise-wide in compliance with our security governance policy.
8. Compliance to laws and regulations We operate in compliance with all applicable laws and regulations.
9. Innovation We seek innovative ways to use technology for business advantage.
10. Customer centricity We deliver best experiences to our customers with our services and products.

3.2.4 Create a set of EA principles for your organization

2 hours

Input: Info-Tech’s ten universal EA principles, Identified promises of value

Output: A defined set of EA principles for your organization

Materials: Note-taking materials, Whiteboard or flip chart, markers

Participants: EA strategy creation team

Create a set of EA principles for your organization using the steps below:

  1. Gather the EA strategy creation team, download the EA Principles Template – EA Strategy, and have the identified promises of value opened.
  2. Select one universal principle and relate it to the promises of value by discussing with the EA strategy creation team. If there is a relation, record “Yes” in the template on the slide “Select the applicability of 10 universally accepted EA principles.” See example below:
    • Universal principle: Enterprise value focus – We aim to provide maximum long-term benefits to the enterprise as a whole while optimizing total costs of ownership and risks.
    • Related promise of value example: Increase the number of investments that have a direct tie with corporate strategy.
  3. Continue the process in step 2 until all ten universal EA principles have been examined. If there is a universal principle that is unrelated to a promise of value, discuss with the team whether the principle still needs to be included. If the principle is not included, record “No” in the template on the slide “Select the applicability of 10 universally accepted EA principles.”
  4. If there are any promises of value that are not captured by the universally accepted EA principles, the team may choose to create new principles. Create the new principles in the format below and record them in the template.
    • Name: The name of the principle, in a few words.
    • Statement: A sentence that expands on the “Name” section and explains what the principle achieves.

Download the EA Principles Template – EA Strategy to document this step.

Organizational stakeholders are more likely to follow EA principles when a rationale and an implication are provided

After defining the set of EA principles, ensure they are all expanded upon with a rationale and implications. The rationale and implications ensure principles are more likely to be followed because they communicate why the principles are important and how they are to be used.

Name
  • The name of the EA principle, in a few words.
Statement
  • A sentence that expands on the “Name” section and explains what the principle achieves.
Rationale
  • Describes the business benefits and reasoning for establishing the principle.
  • Explicitly links the principle to business/IT vision, mission, priorities, goals, or strategic aspirations (strategic themes).
Implications
  • Describe when and how the principle is to be applied.
  • Communicate this section with “must” sentences.
  • Refer to domain-specific policies that provide detailed, domain-specific direction on how to apply the principle.

3.2.5 Add the rationale and implications to the principles that have been created

2 hours

Input: Identified set of EA principles

Output: EA principles that have rationale and implications

Materials: Note-taking materials, Whiteboard or flip chart, markers

Participants: EA strategy creation team

Add the rationale and implication of each EA principle that your organization has selected using the following steps:

  1. Gather the EA strategy creation team and open the EA Principles Template – EA Strategy.
  2. Examine the EA Principles Template – EA Strategy. Look for the detailed descriptions of all the applicable EA universal principles, and discuss with the team whether the pre-populated rationale and implications need to be changed.
  3. Make sure all the rationale and implication sections of the applicable universal EA principles have been examined. Record the changes on the slide devoted to each principle in the template.
  4. Examine any new principles created outside of the universal EA principles. Create the rationale and implication sections for each of those principles. Use the slide “Review the rationale and implications for the applicable universal principles” in the EA Principles Template – EA Strategy to assist with this step.

Download the EA Principles Template – EA Strategy to document this step.

3.2.6 Operationalize the EA principles to ensure they are used when decisions are being made

1-2 hours

Input: Defined set of EA principles

Output: EA principles are successfully operationalized

Materials: Note-taking materials, Whiteboard or flip chart, markers

Participants: EA strategy creation team

Begin to operationalize the EA principles by reviewing the proposed principles with business and technology leadership to secure their approval.

  1. Publish the list of principles, their rationale, and their implications.
  2. Include the principles in any existing policies that guide decision making for the use of technology within the business.
  3. Provide existing governance bodies with the authority to enforce adherence to principles, and communicate the waiver process.
  4. Ensure that project-level teams are aware of the principles and have at least one champion guiding the decisions of the team.

Review a use case for the utilization of EA principles – Sample

After operationalizing the EA principles for your organization, the organization can now use those principles to guide and inform its IT investment decisions. Below is an example of a scenario where EA principles were used to guide and inform an IT investment decision.

Organization wants to provision an application but it needs to decide how to do so, and it considers the relevant EA principles:

  • Reuse › buy › build
  • Managed security
  • Innovation

The organization has decided to go with a specialized vendor, even though it normally prefers to reuse existing components. The vendor has experience in this domain, understands the data security implications, and can help the organization mitigate risk. Lastly, the vendor is known for providing new solutions on a regular basis and is a market leader, making it more likely to provide the organization with innovative solutions.

An oil and gas company created EA fundamentals to guide the EA function

CASE STUDY

Industry: Oil & Gas
Source: Info-Tech

Challenge

As an enterprise architecture function starting from ground zero, the organization did not have the EA fundamentals in place to guide the EA function. Further, the organization also did not possess an EA function scope to define the boundaries of the EA function.

Due to the lack of EA scope, the EA function did not know which part of the organization to provide contributions toward. A lack of EA fundamentals caused confusion regarding the future direction of the EA function.

Solution

Info-Tech worked with the EA team to define the different components of the EA fundamentals. This included EA vision and mission statements, EA goals and objectives, and EA principles.

Additionally, Info-Tech worked with the EA team to define the EA function scope.

These EA strategy components were created by examining the needs of the business. The components were aligned with the identified needs of the EA stakeholders.

Results

The defined EA function scope helped set out the responsibilities of the enterprise architecture function to the organization.

The EA vision and mission statements and EA goals and objectives were used to guide the direction of the EA function. These fundamentals helped the EA function improve its maturity and deliver on its promises.

The EA principles were used in IT review boards to guide the decisions on IT investments in the organization.

3.2.7 Discuss the need for a classical methodology and/or a combination including Agility practices

1 hour

Input: Existing methodologies

Output: Decisions about need of agility, ceremonies, and protocols to be used

Materials: Note-taking materials, Whiteboard or flip chart, markers

Participants: EA strategy creation team

Add the rationale and implication of adopting an Agile methodology and/or a combination with a traditional methodology.

  1. Is there an EA methodology adopted by the organization? Is there a classical one, or is it purely Agile?
  2. What would need to happen to address the business goals of the organization (e.g. is there a need to be more agile?)? Do you need to have more decisions centralized (e.g. to adopt certain standards, security controls)?
  3. Where on the decentralization continuum does your organization need to be?
  4. What role would Enterprise Architects have (would they need to be part of existing ceremonies? Would they need to blend traditional and agile processes?)?
  5. If a customized methodology is required, identify this as an item to be included as part of the EA roadmap (can be run as a Agile Enterprise Operating Model workshop).

Design an Enterprise Architecture Strategy

Phase 4

Design the EA Services

Phase 1

  • 1.1 Explore a general EA strategy approach
  • 1.2 Introduce Agile EA architecture

Phase 2

  • 2.1 Define the business and technology drivers
  • 2.2 Define your value proposition

Phase 3

  • 3.1 Realize the importance of EA fundamentals
  • 3.2 Finalize the EA fundamentals

Phase 4

  • 4.1 Select relevant EA services
  • 4.2 Finalize the set of services and secure approval

This phase will walk you through the following activities:

  • Select relevant EA services
  • Finalize the set of services and secure approval

This phase involves the following participants:

  • CIO
  • EA Team
  • IT Leaders
  • Business Leaders

Step 4.1

Select Relevant EA Services

Activities
  • 4.1.1 Select the EA services relevant to your organization
  • 4.1.2 Identify if your organization needs additional services outside of the recommended list
  • 4.1.3 Complete all of the service catalog fields for each service to show the organization how each can be consumed

This step will walk you through the following activities:

  • Communicate a definition of EA services.
  • Link services to the previously identified EA contributions.

This step involves the following participants:

  • CIO
  • EA Team
  • IT Leaders
  • Business Leaders

Outcomes of this step

  • A defined set of services the EA function will provide.
  • An EA service catalog that demonstrates to the organization how each provided service can be accessed and consumed.

Design the EA Services

Step 3.1 Step 3.2

The definition of EA services will allow the group to communicate how they can add value to EA stakeholders

Enterprise architecture services are a set of activities the enterprise architecture function provides for the organization. EA services are important because the services themselves provide a set of benefits for the organization.

Enterprise Architecture Services

  • A means of delivering value to the business by facilitating outcomes service consumers want to achieve.
  • EA services are defined from the business perspective using business language.
  • EA services are designed to enable required business activities.

Viewing the EA function from a service perspective resolves the following pains:

  • Business users don’t know how EA can assist them.
  • Business users don’t know how to request access to a service with multiple sources of information available.
  • EA has no way of managing expectations for their users, which tend to inflate.
  • EA does not have a holistic view of all the services they need to provide.

Link EA services to the previously identified EA contributions

Previously identified EA contributions can be linked to EA services, which helps the EA function identify a set of EA services that are important to business stakeholders. Further, linking the EA contributions to EA services can define for the EA function the services they need to provide.

Demonstrate EA service value by linking them to EA contributions

  1. EA stakeholders generate drivers
  2. Drivers have pains that obstruct them
  3. Pains are alleviated by EA contributions
  4. EA contributions help define the EA services needed

    • EA Contributions
      Example EA contribution: Business capability mapping shows the business capabilities of the organization and the technology that supports those capabilities in the current and target state. This provides a view for the set of investments that are needed by the organization, which can then be prioritized.

      • EA Services
        Example EA service: Target-state business capability mapping

4.1.1 Select the EA services relevant to your organization

2 hours

Input: Previously identified EA contributions from the EA value proposition

Output: A set of EA services selected for the organization from Info-Tech’s defined set of EA services

Materials: Note-taking materials, Whiteboard or flip chart, markers

Participants: EA strategy creation team

Begin the selection of EA services relevant to your organization by following the steps below:

  1. Gather the EA strategy creation team, and the list of identified EA contributions that the team formulated during Phase 2.
  2. Open the EA Service Planning Tool, select one sub-service, and read its definition.
  3. Based on the definition of the sub-service, refer back to the identified list of EA contributions and check if there is an identified EA contribution that matches the service.
    • If the EA service definitions matches one of the identified EA contributions, then that EA service is relevant to the organization. If there is no match, then the EA service may not be relevant to the organization.
  4. Highlight the sub-service if it is relevant. Add a checkmark beside the EA contribution if it is addressed by a sub-service.
  5. Select the next sub-service and repeat steps 2-4. Continue down the list of sub-services in the EA Service Planning Tool until all sub-services have been examined.

Download the EA Service Planning Tool to assist with this activity.

4.1.2 Identify if your organization needs additional services outside of the recommended list

2 hours

Input: Expertise from the EA strategy creation team, Previously defined EA contributions

Output: A defined set of EA services outside the list Info-Tech has recommended

Materials: Note-taking materials, Whiteboard or flip chart, markers

Participants: EA strategy creation team

Identify if services outside of the recommended list in the EA Service Planning Tool are relevant to your organization by using the steps below:

  1. Gather the EA strategy creation team and the list of EA contributions with checkmarks for contributions addressed by EA services.
  2. Take the list of unaddressed EA contributions and select one EA contribution in the list. Assess whether an EA service is required to address the EA contribution. Ask the group the following:
    • Can the EA practice provide the service now?
    • Does providing this EA service line up with the previously defined EA function scope and EA fundamentals?
  3. Decide if a service needs to be provided for that contribution. If yes, give the service a name and a definition.
  4. Then, decide if the service fits into one of the service categories in the EA Service Planning Tool. If there is no fit, create another service category. Define the new service category as well.
  5. Continue to the next unaddressed EA contribution and repeat steps 2-4. Repeat this process until all unaddressed EA contributions have been assessed.

Download the EA Service Planning Tool to assist with this activity.

Create the EA service catalog to demonstrate to the organization how each service can be accessed and used

The EA service catalog is an important communicator to the business. It shifts the technology-oriented view of EA to services that show direct benefit to the business. It is a tool that communicates and provides clarity to the business about the EA services that are available and how those services can assist them.

Define the services to show value Define the service catalog to show how to use those services
Already defined
  • EA service categories
  • The services needed by the EA stakeholders in each EA service category
Need to define
  • Should EA deliver this service?
  • Service triggers
  • Service provider
  • Service requestor

Info-Tech Insight

The EA group must provide the organization with a list of services it will provide to demonstrate value. This will help the team manage expectations and the workload while giving organizational stakeholders a clear understanding of how to engage EA and what lies outside of EA’s involvement.

4.1.3 Complete all the service catalog fields for each service to show the organization how each can be consumed

4 hours

Input: Expertise from the EA strategy creation team

Output: Service details for each EA service in your organization

Materials: Note-taking materials, Whiteboard or flip chart, markers

Participants: EA strategy creation team

Complete the details for each relevant EA service in the EA Service Planning Tool by using the following steps:

  1. Gather the EA strategy creation team, and open the EA Service Planning Tool.
  2. Select one of the services you have defined as relevant and begin the process of defining the service. Define the following fields:
    • Should EA deliver this service? Should the EA team provide this service? (Yes/No)
    • Service trigger: What trigger will signal the need for the service?
    • Service provider: Who in the EA team will provide the service?
    • Service requestor: Who outside of the EA team has requested this service?
  3. Have the EA strategy creation team discuss and define each of the fields for the service above. Record the decisions in the corresponding columns of the EA Service Planning Tool.
  4. Select the next required EA service, and repeat steps 2 and 3. Repeat the process until all required EA services have their details defined.

Download the EA Service Planning Tool to assist with this activity.

Step 4.2

Finalize the Set of Services and Secure Approval

Activities
  • 4.2.1 Secure approval for your organization’s EA strategy
  • 4.2.2 Map the EA contributions to business goals
  • 4.2.3 Quantify the EA effectiveness
  • 4.2.4 Determine the role of the architect in the Agile ceremonies of the organization

This step will walk you through the following activities:

  • Present the EA strategy to stakeholders.
  • Determine service details for each EA service in your organization.

This step involves the following participants:

  • CIO
  • EA Team
  • IT Leaders
  • Business Leaders

Outcomes of this step

  • Secured approval for your organization’s EA strategy.
  • Measure effectiveness of EA contributions.

Design the EA Services

Step 4.1 Step 4.2

Present the EA strategy to stakeholders to secure approval of the finalized EA strategy

For the EA strategy to be successfully executed, it must be approved by the EA stakeholders. Securing their approval will increase the likelihood of success in the execution of the EA operating model.

Outputs that make up the EA strategy —› Present outputs to EA strategy stakeholders
  • Business and technology drivers
  • EA function value proposition

  • EA vision statement
  • EA mission statement
  • EA goals and objectives
  • EA scope
  • EA principles

  • EA function services
  • Identified and prioritized EA stakeholders.








  • The checkmark symbol represents the outputs this blueprint assists with creating.

4.2.1 Secure approval of your organization’s EA strategy

1 hour

Input: Completed EA Function Strategy Template, Expertise from EA strategy creation team

Output: Approval of the EA strategy

Materials: Note-taking materials, Whiteboard or flip chart, markers

Participants: EA strategy creation team, Key EA stakeholders

Use the following steps to assist with securing approval for your organization’s EA strategy:

  1. Call a meeting between the EA strategy creation team and the identified key EA stakeholders. Key stakeholders were defined in activity 2.1.1.
  2. Open the completed EA Function Strategy Template. Use it to help you discuss the merits of the EA strategy with the key stakeholders.
  3. Discuss with the stakeholders any concerns and modifications they wish to make to the strategy. If detailed questions are asked, refer to the other templates created as a part of this blueprint. Record those concerns and address them at a later time.
  4. After presenting the EA strategy, ask the stakeholders for approval. If stakeholders do not approve, refer back to the concerns documented in step 3 and inquire if addressing the concerns will result in approval.
  5. If applicable, address stakeholder concerns with the EA strategy.
  6. Once EA strategy has been approved, publish the EA strategy to ensure there is a mutual understanding of what the EA function will provide to the organization. Move on to Info-Tech’s Define an EA Operating Model blueprint to begin executing upon the EA strategy.

Use the EA Function Strategy Template to assist with this activity.

4.2.2 Map the EA contributions to the business goals

3 hours

Input: Expertise from EA strategy creation team

Output: Service details for each EA service in your organization

Materials: Note-taking materials, Whiteboard or flip chart, markers

Participants: EA strategy creation team

Map EA contributions/services to the goals of the organization.

  1. Start from the business goals of the organization.
  2. Determine Business and IT drivers.
  3. Identify EA contributions that help achieve the business goals.

Download the EA Service Planning Tool to assist with this activity.

Trace EA drivers to business goals (sample)

A model connecting 'Enterprise Architecture' with 'Corporate Goals' through 'EA Contributions'.

4.2.3 Quantify the EA effectiveness

1 hour

Input: Expertise from EA strategy creation team

Output: Defined KPIs (SMART)

Materials: Note-taking materials, Whiteboard or flip chart, markers

Participants: EA strategy creation team

Use SMART key performance indicators (KPIs) to measure EA contributions vis-à-vis business goals.

Measure the EA strategy effectiveness by tracking the benefits it provides to the corporate business goals

The success of the EA function spans across three main dimensions:

  • The delivery of EA-enabled business outcomes that are most important to the enterprise.
  • The alignment between the business and IT from a planning perspective.
  • Improvements in the corporate business goals due to EA contributions (standardization, rationalization, reuse, etc.).
Corporate Business GoalsEA ContributionsMeasurements
  • Reduction in operating costs
  • Decrease in regulatory compliance infractions
  • Increased revenue from existing channels
  • Increased revenue from new channels
  • Faster time to business value
  • Improved business agility
  • Reduction in enterprise risk exposure
  • Alignment of IT investments to business strategy
  • Achievement of business results directly linked to IT involvement
  • Application and platform rationalization
  • Standards in place
  • Flexible architecture
  • Better integration
  • Higher organizational satisfaction with technology-enabled services and solutions
  • Cost reductions based on application and platform rationalization
  • Standard based solutions
  • Time reduction for integration
  • Service reused
  • Stakeholder satisfaction with EA services
  • Increase customer satisfaction
  • Rework minimized
  • Lower cost of integration
  • Risk reduction
  • Faster time to market
  • Better scalability, etc.

The oil and gas company began the EA strategy creation by crafting an EA value proposition

CASE STUDY

Industry: Oil & Gas
Source: Info-Tech

Challenge

The oil and gas corporation faced a great challenge in communicating the role of enterprise architecture to the organization. Although it has the mandate from the CIO to create the EA function, there was no function in existence. Thus, few people in the organization understood EA.

Because of this lack of understanding, the EA function was often undermined. The EA function was seen as an order taker that provided some services to the organization.

Solution

First, Info-Tech worked with the enterprise architecture team to define the EA stakeholders in the organization.

Second, Info-Tech interviewed those stakeholders to identify their needs. The needs were analyzed and pains that would obstruct addressing those needs were identified.

Lastly, Info-Tech worked with the team to identify common EA contributions that would solve those pains.

Results

Through this process, Info-Tech helped the team at the oil and gas company create a document that could communicate the value of EA. Specifically, the document could articulate the issues obstructing each stakeholder from achieving their needs and how enterprise architecture could solve them.

With this value proposition, EA was able to demonstrate value to important stakeholders and set itself up for success in its future endeavors.

The oil and gas company defined EA services to provide and communicate value to the organization

CASE STUDY

Industry: Oil & Gas
Source: Info-Tech

Challenge

As a brand new enterprise architecture function, the EA function at the oil and gas corporation did not have a set of defined EA services. Because of this lack of EA services, the organization did not know what contributions EA could provide.

Further, without the definition of EA services, the EA function did not set out explicit expectations to the business. This caused expectations from the business to be different from those of the EA function, resulting in friction.

Solution

Info-Tech worked with the EA function at the oil and gas corporation to define a set of EA services the function could provide.

The Info-Tech team, along with the organization, assessed the business and technology needs of the stakeholder. Those needs acted as the basis for the EA function to create their initial services.

Additionally, Info-Tech worked with the team to define the service details (e.g. service benefits, service requestor, service provider) to communicate how to provide services to the business.

Results

The defined EA services led the EA function to communicate what it could provide for the business. As well, the defined services clarified the level of expectation for the business.

The EA team was able to successfully service the business on future projects, adding value through their expertise and knowledge of the organization’s systems. Because of the demonstrated value, EA has been given greater responsibility throughout the organization.

4.2.4 Determine the role of the architect in the Agile ceremonies of the organization

1 hour

Input: Expertise from EA strategy creation team

Output: Participation in Agile Pre- and Post-PI, Architect Syncs, etc.

Materials: Note-taking materials, Whiteboard or flip chart, markers

Participants: EA strategy creation team

Document the involvement of the enterprise architect in your organization’s Agile ceremonies.

  1. Document the Agile ceremonial used in the organization (based on SAFe or other Agile approaches).
  2. Determine ceremonies the System Architect will participate in.
  3. Determine ceremonies the Solution Architect will participate in
  4. Determine ceremonies the Enterprise Architect will participate in.
  5. Determine Architect Syncs, etc.

Note: Roles and responsibilities can be further defined as part of the Agile Enterprise Operating Model.

The EA role relative to agility

The enterprise architecture role relative to agility specifies the architecture roles as well as the agile protocols they will participate in.
This statement will guide every architect’s participation in planning meetings, pre- and post-PI, syncs, etc. Use simple and concise terminology; speak loudly and clearly.

A strong EA role statement relative to agility has the following characteristics:

  • Describes what different architect roles do to achieve the vision of the organization
  • In an agile way
  • Compelling
  • Easy to grasp
  • Sharply focused
  • Specific
  • Concise

Sample EA mission relative to agility

  • Create strategies that provide guardrails for the organization, provide standards, reusable assets, accelerators, and other decisions at the enterprise level that support agility.
  • Participate in pre-PI and post-PI planning activities, architect syncs, etc.

A clear statement can include additional details surrounding the Enterprise Architect role relative to agility

Likewise, below is a sample of connecting keywords together to form an enterprise architect role statement, relative to agility.

Optimize, transform, and innovate by defining and implementing the [Company]’s target enterprise architecture in an agile way.

Optimize – We collaborate with the business to analyze and optimize business capabilities and business processes to enable the agile and efficient attainment of [Company name] business objectives.

Transform – We support IT-enabled business transformation programs by building and maintaining a shared vision of the future-state enterprise and consistently communicating it to stakeholders.

Innovate – We identify and develop new and creative opportunities for IT to enable the business. We communicate the art of the possible to the business.

Defining and implementing – We engage with project teams early and guide solution design and selection to ensure alignment to the target-state enterprise architecture and provide guidance as well as accelerators.

Target enterprise structure in an agile way – We analyze business needs and priorities and assess the current state of the enterprise. We build and maintain the target enterprise architecture blueprints that define:

  • Business capabilities and processes (business architecture)
  • Data, application, and technology assets that enable business capabilities and processes (technology architecture)
  • Architecture principles
  • Standards and reusable assets
  • Continuous exploration, integration, and deployment

Move to the enterprise architecture operating model blueprint to execute your EA strategy

Once approved, move on to Info-Tech’s Define an EA Operating Model blueprint to begin executing on the EA strategy.

Enterprise architecture strategy

This blueprint focuses on setting up an enterprise architecture function, with the goal of maximizing the likelihood of EA success. The blueprint puts into place the components that will align the EA function with the needs of the stakeholders, guide the decision making of the EA function, and define the services EA can provide to the organization.

Agile enterprise architecture operating model

An EA operating model helps you design and organize the EA function, ensuring adherence to architectural standards and delivery of EA services. This blueprint acts on the EA strategy by creating methods to engage, govern, and develop architecture as a part of the larger organization.

Research contributors and experts

Photo of Milena Litoiu, Senior Director Research and Advisory, Enterprise Architecture Milena Litoiu
Senior Director Research and Advisory, Enterprise Architecture
  • Milena Litoiu is a Principal/Senior Manager of Enterprise Architecture. She is Master Certified with The Open Group and she sits on global architecture certification boards.
  • Other certifications include SABSA, CRISC, and Scaled Agile Framework. She started as a certified IT Architect at IBM and has over 25 years experience in this field.
  • Milena teaches enterprise architecture at the University of Toronto and led the development of the Enterprise Architecture Certificate (a course on EA fundamentals, one on EA development and Governance, and one on Trends going forward).
  • She has a Masters in Engineering, an executive MBA, and extensive experience in enterprise architecture as well as methodologies and tools.
Photo of Lan Nguyen, IT Executive, Mentor, Managing Partner at CIOs Beyond Borders Group Lan Nguyen
IT Executive, Mentor, Managing Partner at CIOs Beyond Borders Group
  • Lan Nguyen has a wealth of experience driving the EA strategy and the digital transformation success at the City of Toronto.
  • Lan is a university lecturer on topics like strategic leadership in the digital enterprise.
  • Lan is a Managing Partner at CIOs Beyond Borders Group.
  • Lan specializes in Partnership Development; Governance; Strategic Planning, Business Development; Government Relations; Business Relationship Management; Leadership Development; Organizational Agility and Change Management; Talent Management; Managed Services; Digital Transformation; Strategic Management of Enterprise IT; Shared Services; Service Quality Improvement, Portfolio Management; Community Development; and Social Enterprise.


Photo of Dirk Coetsee, Director Research and Advisory, Enterprise Architecture, Data & Analytics Dirk Coetsee
Director Research and Advisory, Enterprise Architecture, Data & Analytics
  • Dirk Coetsee is a Research & Advisory Director in the Data & Analytics practice. Dirk has over 25 years of experience in data management and architecture within a wide range of industries, especially Financial Services, Manufacturing, and Retail.
  • Dirk spearheaded data architecture at several organizations and was involved in enterprise data architecture, data governance, and data quality and analytics. He architected many operational data stores of ranging complexity and transaction volumes and was part of major enterprise data warehouse initiatives. Lately, he was part of projects that implemented big data, enterprise service bus, and micro services architectures. Dirk has an in-depth knowledge of industry models within the financial and retail spaces.
  • Dirk holds a BSc (Hons) in Operational Research and an MBA with specialization in Financial Services from the University of Pretoria, South Africa.
Photo of Andy Neill, AVP, Enterprise Architecture, Data and Analytics Andy Neill
AVP, Enterprise Architecture, Data and Analytics
  • Andy is AVP Data and Analytics and Chief Enterprise Architect at Info-Tech Research Group. Previous roles include leading the data architecture practice for Loblaw Companies Ltd, Shoppers Drug Mart and 360 Insights in Canada as well as leading architecture practices at Siemens consultancy, BBC, NHS, Ordnance Survey, and Houses of Parliament and Commons in the UK.
  • His responsibilities at Info-Tech include leading the data and analytics and enterprise architecture research practices and guiding the future of research and client engagement in that space.
  • Andy is the Product Owner for the Technical Counselor seat offering at Info-Tech, which gives world-class holistic support to our senior technical members.
  • He is also a instructor and content creator for the University of Toronto in the field of Enterprise Architecture.


Photo of Wayne Filin-Matthews, Chief Enterprise Architect, ICMG Winner of Global Chief Enterprise Architect of the Year 2019 Wayne Filin-Matthews
Chief Enterprise Architect, ICMG Winner of Global Chief Enterprise Architect of the Year 2019
  • Wayne is currently the EA Discipline Lead/Chief Enterprise Architect – Global Digital Transformation Office, COE at Dell Technologies.
  • He is a distinguished Motivator & Tech Lead as well as an influencer.
  • Wayne has led multiple Enterprise Architecture practices at the global level and has valuable contributions in this space managing and growing Enterprise Architecture and CTO practices across strategy, execution, and adoption parts of the IT lifecycle.
Photo of Graham Smith, Experienced lead Enterprise Architect and Independent Consultant Graham Smith
Experienced lead Enterprise Architect and Independent Consultant
  • Graham is an experienced lead enterprise architect specializing in digital and data transformation, with over 33 years of experience, spanning financial markets, media, information, insurance, and telecommunications sectors. Graham has successfully established and led large teams across India, China, Australia, Americas, Japan, and the UK.
  • He is currently working as an independent consultant in digital and data-led transformation and his work spans established businesses and start-ups alike.

Thanks also go to all experts who contributed to previous versions of this document:

  • Zachary Curry, Director, Enterprise Architecture and Innovation, FMC Technologies
  • Pam Doucette, Director of Enterprise Architecture, Tufts Health Plan
  • Joe Evers, Consulting Principal, JcEvers Consulting Corp
  • Cameron Fairbairn, Enterprise Architect, Agriculture Financial Services Corporation (AFSC)
  • Michael Fulton, Chief Digital Officer & Senior IT Strategy & Architecture Consultant at CC and C Solutions
  • Tom Graves, Principal Consultant, Tetradian Consulting
  • (JB) Brahmaiah Jarugumilli, Consultant, Federal Aviation Administration – Enterprise Services Center
  • Huw Morgan, IT Research Executive, Enterprise Architect
  • Serge Parisien, Manager, Enterprise Architecture, Canada Mortgage & Housing Corporation

Additional interviews were conducted but are not listed due to privacy and confidentiality requirements.

Bibliography

“Agile Manifesto for Software Development,” Ward Cunningham, 2001. Accessed July 2021.

“ArchiMate 3.1 Specification.” The Open Group, n.d. Accessed July 2021.

“Are Your IT Strategy and Business Strategy Aligned?” 5Q Partners, 8 Jan. 2015. Accessed Oct. 2016.

Bowen, Fillmore. “How agile companies create and sustain high ROI.” IBM. Accessed Oct. 2016.

Burns, Peter, et al. Building Value through Enterprise Architecture: A Global Study. Booz & Co. 2009. Web. Nov. 2016.

“Demonstrating the Value of Enterprise Architecture in Delivering Business Capabilities.” Cisco, 2008. Web. Oct. 2016.

“Disciplined Agile.” Disciplined Agile Consortium, n.d. Web.

Fowler, Martin. “Building Effective software.” MartinFowler.com. Accessed July 2021.

Fowler, Martin. “Agile Software Guide.” MartinFowler.com, 1 Aug. 2019.

Accessed July 2021.

Haughey, Duncan. “SMART Goals.” Project Smart, 2014. Accessed July 2021.

Kern, Matthew. “20 Enterprise Architecture Practices.” LinkedIn, 3 March 2016. Accessed Nov. 2016.

Lahanas, Stephen. “Infrastructure Architecture, Defined.” IT Architecture Journal, Sept. 2014. Accessed July 2021.

Lean IX website, Accessed July 2021.

Litoiu, Milena. Course material from Information Technology 2690: Foundations of Enterprise Architecture, 2021, University of Toronto.

Mocker, M., J.W. Ross, and C.M. Beath. “How Companies Use Digital Technologies to Enhance Customer Findings.” MIT CISR Working Paper No. 434, Feb. 2019. Qtd in Mayor, Tracy. “MIT expert recaps 30-plus years of enterprise architecture.” MIT Sloan, 10 Aug. 2020. Web.

“Open Agile ArchitectureTM.” The Open Group, 2020. Accessed July 2021.

“Organizational Design Framework – The Transformation Model.” The Center for Organizational Design, n.d. Accessed 1 Aug. 2020.

Ross, Jeanne W. et al. Enterprise Architecture as Strategy: Creating a Foundation for Business Execution. Harvard Business School Press, 2006.

Rouse, Margaret. “Enterprise Architecture (EA).” SearchCIO, June 2007. Accessed Nov. 2016.

“SAFe 5 for Lean Enterprises.” Scaled Agile Framework, Scaled Agile, Inc. Accessed 2021.

“Security Architecture.” Technopedia, updated 20 Dec. 2016. Accessed July 2021.

“Software Engineering Institute.” Carnegie Mellon University, n.d. Web.

“TOGAF 9.1.” The Open Group, 2011. Accessed Oct. 2016.

“TOGAF 9.2.” The Open Group, 2018. Accessed July 2021.

Thompson, Rachel. “Stakeholder Analysis: Winning Support for Your Projects.” MindTools, n.d. Accessed July 2021.

Wendt, Jerome M. “Redefining ‘SMB’, ‘SME’ and ‘Large Enterprise.’” DCIG, 25 Mar. 2011. Accessed July 2021.

Wilkinson, Jim. “Business Drivers.” The Strategic CFO, 23 July 2013. Accessed July 2021.

Zachman, John. “Conceptual, Logical, Physical: It is Simple.” Zachman International, 2011. Accessed July 2021.

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Guided Implementation #1 - Explore the role of enterprise architecture
  • Call #1 - Explore the role of EA in your organization.

Guided Implementation #2 - Create the value proposition
  • Call #1 - Identify and prioritize stakeholders.
  • Call #2 - Use a PESTLE analysis to identify business and technology needs.
  • Call #3 - Prepare for stakeholder interviews.
  • Call #4 - Discuss your EA value proposition.

Guided Implementation #3 - Build the EA fundamentals
  • Call #1 - Understand the importance of EA fundamentals.
  • Call #2 - Define the relevant EA services and their contributions to the organization.
  • Call #3 - Measure EA effectiveness.

Guided Implementation #4 - Design the EA services
  • Call #1 - Build your EA roadmap and communication plan.
  • Call #2 - Discuss the EA role relative to agility.
  • Call #3 - Summarize results and plan next steps.

Author

Milena Litoiu

Contributors

  • Lan Nguyen, IT Executive, Mentor, Managing Partner at CIOs Beyond Borders Group
  • Wayne Filin-Matthews, Chief Enterprise Architect, ICMG Winner of Global Chief Enterprise Architect of the Year 2019
  • Graham Smith, Experienced lead Enterprise Architect and Independent Consultant
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